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'There is a crisis of statehood in much of Africa -a crisis of capability and of legitimacy...The majority of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa now have lower capability (including state capability) than they did at independence.'
The World Development Report 1997. The State in a Changing World

On Planning for Development: Africa

UNCTAD.- Economic Development in Africa Reports

Africa Research Institute

Africa Research Institute (ARI) is an independent, non-partisan think-tank based in London. It was founded in 2007. ARI aims to reflect, understand and build on the dynamism in Africa today. We seek to draw attention to ideas and initiatives that have worked in Africa, and identify new ideas where needed.

by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa

Economic Report on Africa 2013
Making the Most of Africa’s Commodities: Industrializing for Growth, Jobs and Economic Transformation


Executive Summary

African countries have a real opportunity to capitalize on their resource endowments and high international commodity prices, as well as on opportunities from changes in the global economy to promote economic transformation through commodity-based industrialization and to address poverty, inequality and unemployment. If grasped, these opportunities will help Africa promote competitiveness, reduce its dependence on primary commodity exports and associated vulnerability to shocks and emerge as a new global growth pole.

Economic Report on Africa 2012

Economic Report on Africa 2011
Governing development in Africa - the role of the state in economic transformation

Africa’s states have three major development tasks for achieving economic transformation: planning the process, formulating appropriate policies and implementing the plans and policies.
The development process has to be planned for several reasons. The changes required are substantial and therefore the decisions cannot be optimally made by free market forces—most developing economies are characterized by pervasive market failures. The interdependence of all elements of the process needs to be reconciled through comprehensive development frameworks rather than narrow, partial models.

Download ERA 2011 Full Version

Economic Report on Africa. The complete series
Copyright © Economic Commission for Africa

Economic Development in Africa Report 2012
Structural transformation and sustainable development in Africa
Published by UNCTAD

The Economic Development in Africa Report 2012, subtitled “Structural Transformation and Sustainable Development in Africa”, examines how African countries can promote sustainable development. The main message of the Report is that achieving sustainable development in Africa requires deliberate, concerted and proactive measures to promote structural transformation and the relative decoupling of natural resource use and environmental impact from the growth process. Sustainable structural transformation, as defined in the Report, is structural transformation with such decoupling.
The Report builds on the Economic Development in Africa Report 2011 on Fostering Industrial Development in Africa in the New Global Environment. It also fits into UNCTAD’s broader work on the development of productive capacities. The report is timely in the light of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), 20–22 June 2012 and the renewed global focus on greening economies occasioned by the global financial and economic crisis of 2008–2009. The concept of sustainable structural transformation provides a dynamic understanding of the efforts which are involved in greening an economy, and also places such efforts into a development perspective.

From UNCTAD
Economic Development in Africa 2011
Fostering industrial development in Africa in the new global environment

There is mounting evidence indicating that industrial development presents great opportunities for sustained growth, employment and poverty reduction. Consequently, over the past decade, African governments have renewed their political commitment to industrialization and have adopted several initiatives at the national and regional levels to enhance prospects of achieving their development objectives.
The Economic Development in Africa Report (EDAR) 2011 examines the status of industrial development in Africa with a focus on the identification of "stylized facts" associated with African manufacturing. It also provides an analysis of past attempts at promoting industrial development in the region and the lessons learned from these experiences. Furthermore, it offers policy recommendations on how to foster industrial development in Africa in the new global environment characterized by changing international trade rules, growing influence of industrial powers from the South, the internationalization of production, and increasing concerns about climate change.

From UNCTAD
Economic Development in Africa 2007
Reclaiming Policy Space
Domestic Resource Mobilization and Developmental States 

"Developmental states" are the key to boosting domestic savings and productive investments in Africa, contends Economic Development in Africa 2007
Economic Development in Africa: the complete series
From National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138
October 2010

The decline and rise of agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa since 1961

Steven Block -Working Paper 16481 http://www.nber.org/papers/w16481

Agricultural productivity growth in sub-Saharan Africa has been a qualified success. Total factor productivity growth has increased rapidly since the early 1980s. By the early 2000s, average annual TFP growth was roughly four times faster than it had been 25 years earlier. This period of accelerated growth, however, followed nearly 20 years of declining rates of TFP growth subsequent to independence in the early 1960s. Average agricultural TFP growth for sub-Saharan Africa was 0.14% per year during 1960 – 84, and increased to 1.24% per year from 1985 – 2002. The average over this period was approximately 0.6% per year, which accounts for 36% of the increase in total crop output over this period. These highly aggregated results conceal substantial regional and country-level variation. Expenditures on agricultural R&D, along with the reform of macroeconomic and sectoral policies shaping agricultural incentives, have played a substantial role in explaining both the decline and the rise in agricultural productivity. The case study of Ghana clearly reflects these broader findings.

From United Nations Research Institute for Social Development
Democracy, Governance and Well-Being Programme - Paper Number 1 - July 2009
Thandika Mkandawire

Institutional monocroping and monotasking in Africa

"The study of institutions is once again at the centre of development thinking in Africa. The excitement over the discovery of the “key” to development has been most pronounced among those working within an essentially neoclassical economics framework. Since its very inception, development economics—the intellectual scaffolding for development strategies—identified itself with the task of “government-engineered economic transformation” (Toye 2003:21). Early development economists were thus keenly aware of institutions as the framework within which economic decisions and transactions were made. The next issue raised was: what institutions are appropriate for accumulation and structural transformation in the context of “catch-up”? Not only were institutions the framework within which markets worked, but also the motors that would drive markets to perform differently from what would be expected by the simple extrapolation of their past performance. In the linear view of history, “latecomers” would simply adopt the institutions from industrialized countries so as to traverse the stages that the latter had been through. The main task of research was to identify the preconditions for each stage and simply accelerate the movement from one stage to the next.
In contrast, Alexander Gerschenkron (1962) was sceptical of “preconditions” for growth such as those suggested by Rostow (1960)..."


From the African Development Bank
Gender, Poverty and Environmental Indicators on African Countries - (Full Reports)
Gender, Poverty and Environmental Indicators on African Countries is  published by the Statistics Department of the African Development Bank Group. The publication provides some information on the broad development trends relating to gender, poverty and environmental issues in the 53 African countries. Gender, Poverty and Environmental Indicators on African Countries 2009 was prepared by the Economic and Social Statistics Division of the Statistics Department.

From UNCTAD

Enhancing the participation of small- and medium-sized enterprises in global value chains Note by the UNCTAD secretariat - August 2007

This note reviews the policy implications of enhancing the participation of small- and medium- sized enterprises (SMEs) in global value chains (GVCs). While policy measures may vary at the national level and by industry, the case studies conducted by UNCTAD confirmed the need to develop the supply capacity of SMEs and to upgrade their activities in order to maximize benefits from integrating into international production systems. They also highlighted the need for Governments of developing countries to review the existing SME and export promotion strategies to ensure that they are adjusted to the new realities and requirements of global markets.
This note argues that an enabling business environment is a necessary precondition for SMEs to compete successfully on a global scale. Governments, business communities and international donors can play a role in assisting developing countries increase their productive capacities through the adoption of targeted GVC assistance programmes, preferably within public–private sector partnership



Africa Research Institute

"Africa Research Institute aims to reflect, understand and build on the dynamism in Africa today. We are a London-based think tank which looks for practical examples of achievement - by listening to the people who have created that success, often in adversity, and by communicating that experience to organisations, companies and policymakers. We are not guided by ideology and are strictly non-partisan."


From UNCTAD
World Investment Directory, Volume X, Africa 2008
[Available in electronic version only]
The purpose of the World Investment Directory and its database is to assemble comprehensive data and information in individual countries on:
FDI - Operations of TNCs - Basic financial data on the largest TNCs - The legal framework in which such investment takes place - Selected bibliographic information about FDI and TNCs
The present publication covers 53 economies of the African region. Profiles on all these countries are contained in this volume, based on data available to the Secretariat. These are based on information available as of December 2007.


White Paper by the Government of People's Republic of China - 2010
China-Africa Economic and Trade Cooperation

"China is the largest developing country in the world, and Africa is home to the largest number of developing countries. The combined population of China and Africa accounts for over one-third of the world's total. Promoting economic development and social progress is the common task China and Africa are facing.
During their years of development, China and Africa give full play to the complementary advantages in each other's resources and economic structures, abiding by the principles of equality, effectiveness, mutual benefit and reciprocity, and mutual development, and keep enhancing economic and trade cooperation to achieve mutual benefit and progress. Practice proves that China-Africa economic and trade cooperation serves the common interests of the two sides, helps Africa to reach the UN Millennium Development Goals, and boosts common prosperity and progress for China and Africa."



From The World Bank - 2008
Building Bridges
China’s Growing Role as Infrastructure Financier for Africa

Vivien Foster, William Butterfield, Chuan Chen and Nataliya Pushak

In recent years, a number of emerging economies have begun to play a growing role in the finance of infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their combined resource flows are now comparable in scale to traditional official development assistance (ODA) from OECD countries or to capital from private investors. These non-OECD financiers include China, India, and the Gulf states, with China being by far the largest player.
This new trend reflects a much more positive economic and political environment in Sub- Saharan Africa. Real GDP growth in the region has been sustained at 4 to 6 percent now for a number of years, and has benefited from an improved investment climate. The rise of the Chinese and Indian economies has fueled global demand for petroleum and other commodities. Africa is richly endowed with these and faces a historic opportunity to harness its natural resources and invest the proceeds to broaden its economic base for supporting economic growth and poverty reduction. In this context, south-south cooperation provides a channel through which the benefits of economic development in Asia and the Middle East can be transferred to the African continent, through a parallel deepening of trade and investment relations.

Executive Summary
From the United Nations Department of Public Information
Africa Renewal (formerly Africa Recovery) Magazine

The Africa Renewal information programme, produced by the Africa Section of the United Nations Department of Public Information, provides up-to-date information and analysis of the major economic and development challenges facing Africa today. Among the major items it produces is the renowned magazine, Africa Renewal (formerly Africa Recovery), which first appeared in 1987. It also produces a range of public information materials, including backgrounders, press releases and feature articles. It works with the media in Africa and beyond to promote the work of the United Nations, Africa and the international community to bring peace and development to Africa.
The Africa Renewal programme examines the many issues that confront the people of Africa, its leaders and its international partners: economic reform, debt, education, health, women's advancement, conflict and civil strife, democratization, aid, investment, trade, regional integration, rural development and many other topics. It tracks policy debates. It provides expert analysis and on-the-spot reporting to show how those policies affect people on the ground. And, it highlights the views of policy-makers, non-governmental leaders and others actively involved in efforts to transform Africa and improve its prospects in the world today.
Africa Renewal reports on and examines the many different aspects of the UN's involvement in Africa, especially within the framework of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). It works closely with the many UN agencies and offices dealing with African issues, including the >UN Economic Commission for Africa and the Office of the Special Adviser on Africa.



Destroying African Agriculture
By Walden Bello - 7 June 2008

Biofuel production is certainly one of the culprits in the current global food crisis. But while the diversion of corn from food to biofuel feedstock has been a factor in food prices shooting up, the more primordial problem has been the conversion of economies that are largely food-self-sufficient into chronic food importers. Here the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Trade Organization (WTO) figure as much more important villains


From The World Bank Group
African Development Indicators 2005
Conference Edition - 435 pages
Released on 29th June 2005
African Development Indicators 2001

UNIDO
The Industrial Development Report 2004. Industrialization, Environment and the Millenium Development Goals in Sub-Sahara Africa
GHANA
The struggle over water.  The plan to privatise the urban water supply system by March 2003 has become a defining battlefield. For the poor, the commercialisation of water, combined with lack of investment in the sector and regressive socio-economic distribution, is a key factor in their povertystriken situation. At the heart of the issue are questions of need versus profit, and whether water is a right or a commodity. GYEKYE TANOH- KATHY CUSACK.
KENYA
The stark realities of an ideological orthodoxy. Kenya has embarked on privatisation without any discernible ideological reservations. Far from achieving the goal of good governance, privatisation so far has widened the gender gap, made water more expensive than oil and turned patients away from hospitals untreated. In fact, privatisation has spread economic risks throughout society while channelling economic gains to the few. KENYAN SOCIAL WATCH COALITION
MOROCCO
On the way to deepening social inequalities. The privatisation policy is only one aspect of the Structural Adjustment Plan. Initially considered as a means to submit public companies to more rigorous management rules, today it is no more than an instrument to achieve the objective of budgetary balance and to have exceptional income to reduce the foreign debt and recover the confidence of capitalist partners. Health and education are undergoing an underhand process of liberalisation that will worsen social inequality rather than help provide access to services or ensure their efficiency. LUCILE DAUMAS ABDELLAZIZ MESSAOUDI ABDELLATIF ASSINI ABDELKHALEK BENZEKRI MOHAMED HAKECH SAAD BELGHAZI (RESEARCHER)
SENEGAL
Less State, fewer benefits. While applying structural adjustment programmes in the mid-1990s the government designed and implemented a sweeping plan for the privatisation of public companies. Since 1989, 27 public companies have effectively passed into private hands. The result has been the deterioration of the education system and the public health service, the degradation of food production and security, increased unemployment and the growth of exclusion and inequalities. ABDOUL SOULEYE SOW
SOUTH AFRICA
The widening gap between rich and poor. The democratic gains of South Africa’s 1994 transition rapidly came under pressure as the new leaders adopted neo-liberal policies in the face of demands of the poor majority for rapid socio-economic transformation. At the time,«12 million South Africans did not have access to clean drinking water, 21 million did not have access to adequate sanitation … and more than 20 million had no access to electricity,»  while 87% of the land was in the hands of about 60,000 white farmers. ANDILE MNGXITAMA ANN EVELETH
SUDAN
The damage of declining public investment on services. Liberalisation and privatisation policies, and the new terms of international trade, have had negative impact on the national economy and the socio-economic status of the population. The decline in public investment in services has reflected negatively on human development, as indicated by the decline in calorie intake and the increase of the population under the poverty line. It was also reflected in the almost total failure to realise any of the government’s targets in the fields of health, education, drinking water or sanitation. DR. HASSAN ABDEL ATI DR. GALAL EL DIN EL TAYEB
TANZANIA
Benefit of an elite at the expense of the poor majority. While some businessmen and investors cite GDP growth and higher efficiency as positive results of liberalisation, civil society finds that economic reform measures have reduced government services in communities, increased individual costs for social services, and caused job losses. The results have been regressive, as a small minority have benefited while the majority have become further impoverished and disenfranchised.
TUNISIA
Democratic deficits in the midst of liberalisation. In 1987, following a crisis in the balance of payments, Tunisia entered a structural adjustment programme, aimed at liberalising the economy and cutting the State’s role in competitive economic sectors. From 1997 onwards, the government accelerated the process and started selling companies that were not losing money. Civil society has been unable to exert pressure on the government to prevent decisions being made contrary to the interests of the majority. SALAHEDDIN EL JORSHI
UGANDA
Privatisation versus the poor. Although in some areas such as telecommunications and electricity, the liberalisation has improved quality, in others, the improvement is hardly cosmetic. While most of the poor and rural population do not have access to basic services, for women in particular privatisation has increased their work load. So that those excluded receive better basic services it is necessary to develop policy and regulatory mechanisms that reinvest the resources generated by privatisation in the social infrastructure. DAVID OBOT
ZAMBIA
Poverty in the midst of the market: the Zambian scenario. At present, 73% of the population live in poverty. Of these, close to 59% are extremely poor, with the majority being women and children. In addition to income deficiency, the poor lack access to adequate food, health and educational facilities, safe water, clothing and shelter. The PRSP is a weak response to poverty’s alarming proportions, while agriculture liberalisation has not benefited domestic farmers, due to high tariff walls and heavy subsidies in Western markets. MICHELO HANSUNGULE
DEVELOPMENT

From UNCTAD
Economic Development in Africa: Performance, Prospects and Policy Issues, 2001
Africa as a whole experienced moderate growth from the mid- 1960s until the end of the 1970s. While the average growth rate was well below the rate achieved by a handful of East Asian economies, it equalled or exceeded the growth rates attained by many developing countries in other regions. In particular there was a notable acceleration of growth in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)1 during the 1970s (table 1), supported by a boom in commodity prices and foreign aid. Investment in many countries in the region exceeded 25 per cent of GDP, and the savings gap remained relatively moderate.
Economic performance deteriorated rapidly in SSA in the late 1970s and early 1980s, whereas the slowdown of growth was relatively moderate in North Africa. Unlike many countries in other developing regions which managed to restore growth after the lost decade of the 1980s, stagnation and decline continued in SSA during the first half of the 1990s due to a combination of adverse external developments, structural and institutional bottlenecks and...


Samir Amin, (1990)
Maldevelopment - Anatomy of a global failure
...In this book it is proposed to analyse this failure of development from a political stand-point, for discussion of the options in the framework of macroeconomic schema provides no more than commonplace and foreseeable findings. We must aim higher and integrate in the discussion all the economic, political, social and cultural facets of the problem and at the same time fit them into a local framework ( Africa) that takes account of interaction on a world scale.
We acknowledge that this aim comes up against major theoretical difficulties. Social reality as a whole has three facets: economic, political and cultural. The economic aspect is perhaps the best known. In this field, conventional economics has forged tools of immediate analysis and with greater or lesser success of management of an advanced capitalist society. Historical materialism has sought to plunge deeper and has often succeeded in illuminating the character and extent of social struggles underlying the economic choices.
The field of power and politics is relatively less known; and eclecticism in the theories advanced shows the inadequate scientific mastery of the reality. Functional political thought, like its former or recent ingredients (geopolitics, systems analysis, etc.) may sometimes be of immediate use in shaping strategies but remains conceptually impoverished and does not warrant the status of a critical theory. It is true that historical materialism provides a hypothesis as to the organic relationship between the material base and the political superstructure, and the hypothesis is fruitful if it is not too crudely interpreted. The Marxist schools, however, have not conceptualized the issue of power and politics (modes of domination) as they have the categories(modes of production). The propositions in this direction, by Freudian Marxists for example, have the undoubted merit of drawing attention to neglected aspects of the issue but have not yet produced an overall conceptual system. The field of politics lies virtually fallow.
It is not by chance that the first chapter of Volume One of Capital includes the section entitled 'The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret thereof. Marx intends to unveil the mysteries of capitalist society, and the reason why it appears to us as directly governed by economics, in the forefront of the social scene and the determinant of the other social dimensions that seem then to accommodate to its demands. Economic alienation thus defines the essence of the ideology of capitalism. Conversely, pre-capitalist class societies are governed by politics, which takes the forefront of the stage and provide the constraints that other aspects of the social reality - including economic life-seem bound to obey. If a theory of these societies were to be written, the work would be entitled 'Power' (instead of capital for the capitalist mode) and the opening chapter would deal with 'the fetishism of power' (instead of the fetishism of commodities).

H. A. Amara/B. Founou-Tchuigona (eds.) - 1990
African Agriculture: the critical choices
In countries with high population to land ratios, industry has a fundamental role to play in the creation of the conditions necessary for progress in agriculture. Industry helps promote growth at several levels. On the one hand, it provides the material, mechanical and chemical means to modernize the techniques used in stock-rearing and crop-growing. But through the employment it creates' it also determines, directly or indirectly, the number of agriculturally active workers, the productivity of the peasants' labour, their income level and, ultimately, the overall agricultural demand for consumer and capital goods. Industry is the basis for the growth of an internal market, an indispensable element in the dynamic of development in which agricultural demand is a fundamental factor. In Algeria, the farmers have very substantially improved their marginal income, more by employing the manpower resources of rural households and raising the price of agricultural products than by increasing the productivity of labour. The state, striving to intensify agriculture, has laid great stress on farming equipment, tractors' harvesters, crop treatment and irrigation techniques. This progress in equipment was supposed to promote the adoption and diffusion of new, more intensive production methods and to improve crop yields.
This increase in the capital provided by industry, however, was not by itself a sufficient factor in agricultural progress. Research in agronomy and the training and education system were not adequate to ensure renewal of production methods and improvement in the technical expertise of the peasants.
Despite amelioration of the level of farm equipment, stock-rearing and crop-growing methods have barely evolved and yields have increased only slightly. The relative costs of mechanization and other agricultural investment, in view of the productivity of the land, limit the use of more intensive techniques, methods of cultivation, fertilizers, weed killers, selected seeds, and so on.
In this context, extensive systems have shown themselves to be more profitable for those enterprises that gear their production to this market than systems that make more use of modern production methods, at least in low to medium rainfall areas. The relative stagnation of yields results in a tendency towards more land and resources being used for stock-rearing. This process is underpinned by a price system favourable to animal products and the high revenues expressing the associated demand. As a result, the price policy in force over the last decade to stimulate base production, wheat, milk, and vegetables, has proved powerless to reverse the tendencies observed in the structure of production.

M. Lamine Gakou - 1987
The crisis in African agriculture.- Studies in African political economy: The United Nations University
Our aim in undertaking this work is to demonstrate, or provide further confirmation that the crisis affecting Africa particularly - even though it is more widespread - has its profound roots in the integration of African economies into the world capitalist system. The agricultural sectors and the rural areas are most often the ones most affected because of this integration. The case of agriculture, which, in most countries, is in crisis because it is essentially oriented towards the world market and not towards the feeding of the local people, shows that it is idle for the underdeveloped countries, and particularly for Africa, to seek solutions to their problems in the framework of a system whose modus operandi and rules of the game operate in such a way that it is always the poorest and economically weakest that suffer the most serious consequences of the crisis. If the developed capitalist countries can make the underdeveloped countries bear at least a part of the burden of their own crisis, in these countries and in Africa in particular, the so-called 'non-modern', 'traditional' sectors, agriculture above all, bear more of the burden. Other explanations can be found for the crisis, but we feel that these explanations can be no more than secondary, the fundamental cause being the integration of Africa into a system over which it has absolutely no control.
Even in the Sahelian region there are reports of granaries of cereals always full during the precolonial period despite the low level of development of productive forces. But was it not this low level of development of productive forces that ultimately made Africa the victim of the capitalist mode of production? A brief look at the work of distinguished researchers who have studied precolonial African societies suggests that these societies were not adequately prepared to defeat the aggressions of capitalism despite great capacities for resistance often linked to very advanced levels of political and social organization. The long era of domination that followed saw Africa drained of its human and material substance which was sucked out by the invaders.

Róbinson Rojas - 1997
Africa: transformation without change
Since the end of the Second World War, the former colonies in Africa have been under direct economic control and indirect political control by the Western European countries which were the former colonizers. France and Britain, that is, with some encroachment by United States and Japan.
This neo-colonial control has its reflection in the total lack of industrialization in the region.
Since 1958, when the Treaty of Rome was signed by the Western European countries, their relations with African countries were very well defined. History played a critical role in molding those relations. The EC vision was defined as "a natural partnership" with Africa, with specific aims:
1) build up a secure supply of raw materials, and
2) build up a secure market for European manufactured goods, and
3) with the help of the U.S. "protect" the African nations against the danger of becoming influenced by the former USSR or People's Republic of China.
The former EC utilized two instruments for doing that: trade preferences and direct aid,...

A.Okolo,
Dependency in Africa: stages of African political economy
THE STATE, CIVIL SOCIETY AND NGOs

G. M. Carew, Development theory and the promise of democracy in Africa
Y. Bangura, Authoritarian Rule and Democracy in Africa: A Theoretical Discourse, Discussion Paper No. 18, March 1991, UNRISD.
R. Rojas, Notes on the centrality of the African state, 1998


R. Lemarchand, Patterns of state collapse and reconstruction in Central Africa, in African Studies Quarterly
J. M. Mbaku, Governance, wealth creation and development in Africa: the challenges and the prospects, in African Studies Quarterly

J.T. Gire, A Psychological Analysis of Corruption in Nigeria, in Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa
C.K. Daddieh: Beyond Governance and Democratization in Africa: Toward State Building for Sustainable Human Development, in Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa
Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, Beyond Economic Liberalization in Africa: Structural Adjustment and the Alternatives

National Summit in Africa, Democracy and Human Rights
USAID, Governance and the Economy in Africa: Tools for Analysis and Reform of Corruption

Stanford University, Workshop on Democracy in Africa in Comparative Perspective

GLOBALISATION

J.S. Saul/C. Leys,  Sub-Saharan Africa in Global Capitalism, 1999
World Bank, Can Africa Claim the 21st Century?, 2000
O. Coeur de Roy, The African challenge: internet, networking and connectivity activities in a developing environment
F. Mayor, Africa and globalization: the challenges of democracy and governance. 1998
Marcos Arruda, Neo-liberal Financial Globalization: capitalism's grave illness.
Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, The Market tells them so: the World Bank and Economic Fundamentalism in Africa
United Nations University, Globalization and Development in Africa: online papers
Finance and Development: Globalization in Africa, Dec. 2001
The United Nations University (2004):
Globalization and Development in Africa

THE DEBT CRISIS AND STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT  

World Bank, Adjustment and Growth. Lessons from and for Sub-Saharan Africa
F. Stewart, J. Klugman and A. H. Helmsing, Decentralization in Zimbabwe
GAP, Civil Society perspectives on IMF and World Bank Structural Adjustment policies
GAP, Conditioning Debt relief and Adjustment creates conditions for more debt
R. Hammond (GAP), The impact of IMF structural adjustment policies on Tanzanian agriculture
World Council of Churches, Statement on Debt Crisis - G8 proposals are insufficient.
Journal of Sustainable Development, Our continent, our future: African perspectives on structural adjustment
The Development Group for Alternative Policies (GAP), The all too visible hand: a five-country look at the long and destructive reach of the IMF
Internet Journal of African studies, Issue 3: Neo-liberalism and Environment

THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE IMF:

The IMF files, Structural Adjustment Program country by country
R. Sharer, Trade: An Engine of Growth for Africa
C. Burnside and D. Dollar, Aid Spurs Growth in a Sound Policy Environment
S. Schadler, How Successful Are IMF-Supported Adjustment Programs?
E. C. Offerdal, The Response of Investment and Growth to Adjustment Policies
G. A. Mackenzie and D. W. H. Orsmond, The Quality of Fiscal Adjustment and Growth
A. Bhattacharya, P. J. Montiel, and S. Sharma, How Can Sub-Saharan Africa Attract More Private Capital Inflows?
H. Pill and M. Pradhan, Financial Liberalization in Africa and Asia
I. Lienert, Civil Service Reform in Africa: Mixed Results After 10 Years
O. Kanaan, Tanzania's Experience with Trade Liberalization
E. A. Calamitsis, Adjustment and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Unfinished Agenda
A. Jbili, K. Enders, and V. Treichel, Financial Sector Reforms in Morocco and Tunisia


P. Cashin and C. Pattillo, The Duration of Terms of Trade Shocks in Sub-Saharan Africa
A. J. Yeats, A. Amjadi, U. Reincke, and F. Ng, What Caused Sub-Saharan Africa's Marginalization in World Trade?


J-P Chauffour, S. Eken, M. A. El-Erian, and S. Fennell, Growth and Financial Stability in the Middle East and North Africa
A. D. Ouattara, An Agenda for the 21st Century
E. Hernández-Catá, Sub-Saharan Africa: Economic Policy and Outlook for Growth


L. Squire, Confronting AIDS
M. Ainsworth, Setting Government Priorities in Preventing HIV/AIDS
M. Over, Coping with the Impact of AIDS


E. Harris, Impact of the Asian Crisis on Sub-Saharan Africa


The challenges of globalisation for Africa
Address by Alassane D. Ouattara
Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund
at the Southern Africa Economic Summit sponsored by the World Economic Forum - Harare, May 21, 1997

Globalization has become a major topic of discussion and concern in economic circles since the mid-1990s. It is clear that the trend toward more integrated world markets has opened a wide potential for greater growth, and presents an unparalleled opportunity for developing countries to raise their living standards. At the same time, however, the Mexican crisis has focussed attention on the downside risks of this trend, and concerns have arisen about the risks of marginalization of countries. All of this has given rise to a sense of misgiving, particularly among developing countries.
So what is "globalization"? What are its implications for the conduct of economic policy, particularly in Africa? What are its potential benefits and risks? What will developing countries have to do to benefit from it, to avoid its downside risks? Is there any good reason to fear globalization? To answer these and other questions, it would be useful first to explain what globalization is, and what it is not, what has caused it, and what effects it has had.

TRADE, TNCs AND FDI IN AFRICA

From UNCTAD
Foreign Direct Investment in Africa: Performance and Potential, 1999
Foreign direct investment (FDI) is welcomed and, indeed, actively sought by virtually all African countries. The contribution that FDI can make to their economic development and integration into the world economy is widely recognized. For this reason, African countries have made considerable efforts over the past decade to improve their investment climate. They have liberalized their investment regulations and have offered incentives to foreign investors. More importantly, the economic performance of the region had substantially improved from the mid-1990s.

  However, the expected surge of FDI into Africa as a whole has not occurred. Too often, potential investors discount the African continent as a location for investment because a negative image of the region as a whole conceals the complex diversity of economic performance and the existence of investment opportunities in individual countries.


Martin Robra, Watch out! WTO facts and info
Susan George, From the MAI to the Millennium Round
Eva Ombaka, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and Pharmaceuticals.
Victoria Tauli-Corpuz, TRIPS and its potential impacts on Indigenous Peoples.
Equity and Growth Through Economic Research, Foreign direct investment and its determinants in emerging economies, 1998
Equity and Growth Through Economic Research, Sustaining trade and exchange rate reform in Africa: lessons for macroeconomic management, 2000

AFRICA AND THE G7 COUNTRIES

R. Rojas, Notes on the European Union and Africa
Europe's Forum on International Cooperation, African Development Forum
The United States Army College
EUFORIC, European Union cooperation with Africa, Asia and Latin America
   EUFORIC, France cooperation with Africa, Asia and Latin America
AAGM, United States and Africa
E. J.Sirleaf, Rethinking aid to Africa
T. Parfitt: Europe's Mediterranean designs: an analysis of the Euromed relationship with special reference to Egypt

C. Landsberg/F. Kornegay, The Western powers, South Africa and Africa: burden sharing, burden shift, and spheres of influence

CONFLICTS

UN Security Council, Illegal exploitation of natural resources and other forms of wealth of the Democratic Republic of The Congo
U.N., Conflict and Sustainable Development in Africa, 1998
Oneworld, Contemporary Conflicts in Africa

K. Kyle, The United Nations in Congo, Initiative on Conflict Resolution and Ethnicity (INCORE)
J. Bayo Adekanye, From violence to politics: key issues internationally, INCORE 2001
M. Burton, Looking back, moving forward, revisiting conflicts, striving towards peace: the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, INCORE
S. Jackson, The Challenges and Contradictions of Development and Conflict, INCORE 2001
INCORE, From Protagonist to Pragmatist: Political Leadership in Divided Societies, 2000
B. Hamber, Repairing the Irreparable: Dealing with double-binds of making reparations for crimes of the past, INCORE 1998

MILITARY

AAGM, U.S. Arms and Training Programs in Africa. The Clinton Legacy

GENDER

AAGM, Women and gender in Africa
K. Haq, Global commitment for women's advancement and African reality
J. Stolz and P. Le Faure, The secret scourge of African women , in Le Monde Diplomatique 1997
Les femmes d'Afrique francophone

Y. Fall, Gender and Social Dimensions of IMF policies in Senegal, The Development Group for Alternative Policies (GAP)

CHILDREN

United Nations Children's Fund
Convention on the Rights of the Child

War Child
SOS Children's Villages


FRANCOPHONE AFRICA


DEVELOPMENT:

Technological development in Francophone Africa
The Declaration of Dakar, Francophone meeting on participatory development
EAGER, Mid-term evaluation project
M. T. Francisco, Synthesis of Five Francophone Africa Country Studies on the Effectiveness of Informatics Policy Instruments in Africa, 1995
Overview of educational material utilised in Francophone Africa
J. Nadeau et al., Information Highway and the Francophone world: Current situation and strategies for the future
K. Nordenserenj et al., Overview of educational material utilised in Francophone Africa, 1998



POWER RELATIONS BETWEEN FRANCE AND AFRICA:

SURVIE, Les dossiers noirs de la politique africaine de la France
Réseau Voltaire, Les liaisons mafieuses de la Françafrique
R. Williams, Beyond old borders: Challenges to Franco-South African security relations in the new millenium
P. Leymarie, Shock waves after Mobutu. Africa's new geopolitics, in Le Monde Diplomatique 1997


FRENCH "COOPERATION" WITH AFRICA:

L. De Boisdeffre, Etude comparative sur l'aide à la réduction de la pauvreté: le cas de la France, 1996
Observatoire Permanent de la Coopération Française, Bercy-Bretton Woods: Le poids du Ministere des Finances dans l'APD de la France et les liens avec le F.M.I., 1996
Observatoire Permanent de la Coopération Française, La dévaluation du franc CFA, 1995
J. D. Naudet, Aperçu de l'aide bilatérale française au développement, 1995
Comité d'Aide au Développement (CADOECD), Memorandum de la France au CAD , 1994
Observatoire Permanent de la Coopération Française, L'opacité du systeme français d'aide au développement , 1995
P. Leymarie, En Afrique, la fin des ultimes "chasses gardées", in Le Monde Diplomatique, 1996
Charles Josselin, Avenir de l'influence française. Pour une solidarité européenne commune, Courrier de la Planete 42, 1997
OECD, Development cooperation review of France
S. Saumon, From state capitalism to neo-liberalism in Algeria: the case of a failing state
S. Saumon, External domination via domestic states: the case of Francophone Africa
S. Saumon, French neo-colonialism in Francophone Africa? The role of the state in processes of foreign domination
K. Gernoth, Present threats to France's hegemonic role in Africa: neo-colonialism no longer in demand
M. Allan, A monetary policy to boost regional competitiveness: the CFA Franczone


CONFLICT:

A. Manley, Guinea Bissau/Senegal: war, civil war and the Casamance question


STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT:

C. Olivier, Bring in back the shine, Worldlink, (Cote d'Ivoire), 1998
B. Chavane, Bilan et perspectives des privatisations en Afrique francophone, Organisation Internationale du Travail
Equity and Growth Through Economic Research (USAID), L'économie politique de la libéralisation du commerce exterieur. Le cas de la vanille à Madagascar, 2000
Equity and Growth Through Economic Research (USAID), Measuring competitiveness and its sources: the case of Mali's manufacturing sector
Médecins Sans Frontieres, New agreements on patents for medicines in Francophone Africa threatens the health of populations, 2000
B. J. Cohen, Beyond the EMU: a problem of sustainability, 2000



DATA from The World Factbook (CIA)
Former French colonies and protectorats:
Algeria Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon
Central Af. Rep. Chad Congo, R. of the Cote d'Ivoire
Djibouti Gabon Guinea Madagascar
Mali Mauritania Mayotte Morocco
Niger Senegal Togo Tunisia
Former Belgian colonies:
BurundiCongo, Democratic Republic of the (former Zaire)   *Rwanda  
Former Portuguese colonies:
Cape Verde * Sao Tome and Principe *
Former Spanish colonies:
Equatorial Guinea *
Former English colonies:
Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Mauritius
U.S. Library of the Congress: Côte d'Ivoire: a case study (1988)
JOURNALS

Internet African History Sourcebook
Horn of Africa Bulletin
Information Bank on African Development Studies (IBADS)
In defence of Marxism: Africa
World History Archives: Western Africa
Central Africa
Eastern Africa
Southern Africa
The Horn
Egypt and the Maghrib
African Studies Internet Resources
Canadian Journal of Political Science

ECHOES from elsewhere
Editorial

The Sidama Concern
Articles and Book Reviews by Seyoum Y. Hameso
African Studies Quartely
Le nouvel Afrique Asie
Jeune Afrique Economie
World Council of Churches (WCC), Publications
Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa
Internet Journal of African Studies (University of Bradford)
Newsletter the magazine
Foreign Policy
Mediterranean Quarterly
Political Science Quarterly
Africabib (bibliography)

NEWS AND MEDIA

All Africa Global Media (AAGM)
Africa Online
Africa 2000
The Independent (South Africa)
KenyaWeb
Daily Mail & Guardian (South Africa)
The Nando Times
Synthese Info
AAGM: North Africa
AAGM: West Africa
AAGM: East Africa
AAGM: Central Africa
AAGM: Southern Africa
NewAfrica.Com:

Africa Economy
Central Banks reports
African Economic Newsletter
Africa Stock Exchange
Structural Adjustment
Africa Social Economic Reports
Africa Poverty Strategies
Africa Organisations
Foreign Debt
African Countries Feature Articles
Foreign Aid
Economic Indicators
Exchange rates
Economic Trends
Economic Trade
Economic Policy
Economic Researches
Regional Integration
Economic Reports
Central Banks in Africa
Budget Speeches

Africa intelligence
Afrique Tribune

Africalog. Bridging Africa to the World
Africa News Now
Afrikom

OTHER LINKS

Index on Africa
Columbia University: African Studies Internet Resources
African Studies Association: Africa south of the Sahara
H-Africa
Oneworld News:  Africa
Africa Information Service
NewsAfrica
AdmiNet-Africa
Center for International Private Enterprise
Digital Imaging Project of South Africa
Comparative Democratization Project, Stanford University
A Vision for Africa
Africa Server
afriqueDev - a portal for Africa Development
Yale Africa Guide Interactive
AfricaCafe
Bisharat
Business and Economic Information on Africa , Columbia University

INTERNATIONAL REPORTS AND STATISTICS

Organization of African Unity
World Development Reports
Human Development Report 2000
The state of food insecurity in the world
Global Development Finance 2000
World Development Indicators 2000
World Resources 1998-99: Trends
X UNCTAD
Xe CNUCED
UNCTAD X

World Bank, Classification of economies by income, 1997-1998
Country Indicators for Foreign Policy
Statistical Office of the European Union

ORGANISATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS

Organisation of African Unity (OAU)
Coalition Mondiale pour l'Afrique-Global Coalition for Africa
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA)

Africa Policy Information Center
Organisations of Africa (MBendi)
The Development Group for Alternative Policies -GAP-

Centre d'étude d'Afrique noire (University of Bordeaux)

Information sur les pays en développement IBISCUS
Oxford University: Centre for the Study of African Economies
Working papers

Office of the Special Coordinator for Africa and the Least Developed Countries (UN)
Arab and Islamic Development Funds and Financial Institutions
AFRICA RECOVERY on line
United Nations University: Priority Africa
Africa Economic Research Consortium (AERC)
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa)
International Institute for Democracy
Africa Resources Trust
Capacity.org: a gateway on capacity building
Transnational Institute
Harvard University: Africa Research Program
The Center for Foreign Policy Studies
United Nations Development Program in South Africa African National Congress(South Africa)
Congress of South African Trade Unions
Canadian International Development Agency(French and English)
World Bank Africa Home Page
The International Centre for Ethnic Studies
Centre for International Development and conflict Management
Group For Research and information on Peace and Security
The International Institute for Strategic Studies
Friends of Africa Foundation
African Development Bank
Africa Virtual University
Centre for the Development of Industry(European Union on industrialisation in ACP countries)
Centre for the Study of African Economies
Africa Research Central
Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa Bankers' Association
The Anti-Apartheid Movement
Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa Limited
South African Reserve Bank
Saatchi and Saatchi Africa Insite
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Trade and Industrial Policy Secretariat, South Africa
Africa Peace Cup
Social Science Research Council

LINKS ON FRANCOPHONE AFRICA

Afrique francophone
Institut de Recherche sur le Maghreb contemporain
Economie et Développement: Le Centre International Francophone de Documentation et d'Information de l'Agence de la Francophonie
La Mort de Patrice E. Lumumba

Senegal Online

L'Afrique francophone virtuelle
Algérie:FORUM (Chronologie, Evénements 1954-1962)
AFRICA UPDATE: Francophone Africa Spring, 1995

AFRICA UPDATE: archives

MIDDLE EAST

Dr. T. Hermann, Conducting Research in a Divided Society: the Israeli-Palestinian case, The Tami Steinmetz Center for Peace Research Tel Aviv University and the Open University of Israel 1997

TOOLS

Countries A-H
Countries I-P
Countries Q-Z

Reference map from the CIA

Maps of Africa, Perry-Castañeda Library, Map Collection

From Chatham House- 30 September 2009
Somaliland: democracy threatened
By Michael Walls
Download Paper here

Somaliland faces a critical constitutional and political dilemma that is the equal of pivotal points in its recent past: successful negotiation of that dilemma would mark a significant step forward in the evolution of the Somaliland political system, but failure with consequent instability and a more authoritarian governance system remains a distinct possibility.
Somaliland is one of the few secure and democratic territories in the Horn of Africa. The destabilising effect of a failure to successfully tackle the current crisis can only contribute to further deterioration in an already unstable part of the African continent.

From African Affairs - 9 May 2009
The emergence of a Somali state: building peace from civil war in Somaliland
By Michael Walls
[(C)The Author [2009]. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal African Society. All rights reserved]
ABSTRACT
At a time when Somalia is widely viewed as a political and humanitarian disaster, it is significant that the north-western territory of Somaliland has installed a comparatively stable government and held a series of elections that have been declared ‘relatively free and fair’ by observers. This article considers a key period in the establishment of the current system of state, from the 1991 collapse of the Siyaad Barre regime to the 1993 conference in the northern town of Borama which saw the transition from an interim military government to civilian administration. While the Borama conference did not end conflict in Somaliland, it resulted in an interim constitution that eventually enabled a more lasting peace, along with popular elections for local government, President, and Lower House of Parliament. The article argues that the success of the 1991–3 process was built on a set of deeply embedded social norms that emphasized the importance of dialogue between antagonists; a willingness to accept that the most complex grievances would be set aside indefinitely to avoid the contentious process of negotiating compensation payments; the opening of space for the intervention of mediators; and a sustained commitment to consensus building in preference to divisive voting. In short, local resources have been employed effectively in the cause of achieving a lasting peace and what appears to be a viable system of democracy.

Centre for Policy Studies
The Centre for Policy Studies is an independent policy research institution that produces original and thought-provoking research on South Africa's, and the rest of Africa's policies, governance and democratisation challenges.
Originally established 15 years ago, as part of the Business School of the University of the Witwatersrand in 1987, CPS’s work still enjoys wide recognition among foreign scholars and research institutions. Engaging with, but remaining independent of all political parties and interest groups, it has established itself as a highly respected influence in South Africa’s key policy debates.
CPS is currently engaged in a major expansion programme with a strong emphasis on Africa. Besides a concerted effort to raise enough core funding to sustain a high level of research activity, this programme also entails an increased emphasis on:
• international co-operative research projects,
• efforts to enhance and deepen CPS’s field research,
• a training programme designed to improve CPS research expertise, and
• longer-term projects which will deepen the understanding of South Africa’s policy challenges.
Over the next five years, 2007 - 2012, CPS will focus on a clearly defined niche of policy, governance and democratisation. Its commitment to researching continental African challenges and disseminating them widely will be steadfast.


The urban challenge in Africa: Growth and management of its large cities
Edited by Carole Rakodi
United Nations University Press
TOKYO - NEW YORK - PARIS
© The United Nations University, 1997
The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations University.

From The World Bank - September 2006
Africa's Silk Road:
China and India's New Economic Frontier

China and India Breaking New Economic Ground in Africa; South-South Trade and Investment Create Imbalance, Opportunities

Commission for Africa Report Launched
By Corinne Archer, 11 March 2005
Addis Ababa, 11 March - The Commission for Africa (CFA), launched its long-awaited report on 11 March.

Report of the Comission for Africa [PDF]
-
Keynote Address by H.E Prime minister Meles Zenawi
-
Address by K.Y. Amoako, Executive Secretary of ECA
-
Extensive Media Coverage
-
Photo Gallery


From Economic Commission for Africa:

Economic Report on Africa:
2008
Africa and the Monterrey Consensus: Tracking Performance and Progress

2007
Accelerating Africa’s Development through Diversification

2006
Capital Flows and Development Financing in Africa

2005
Meeting the Challenges of Unemployment and Poverty in Africa

2004
Unlocking Africa's Trade Potential
2003:
Accelerating the pace of development.
The report examines how Africa can achieve growth rates necessary to attain the Millennium Development Goals. It ranks African countries based on the performance of macroeconomic, poverty reduction, and institution building policies, using an ECA-designed Expanded Policy Stance Index.

2002
Tracking Performance and Progress
2000
Transforming Africa's Economies
1999
The challenges of poverty reduction and sustainability

1998
Financial sector reform and debt management

The complete series
The Missing Link in Growth and Sustainable Development: Closing the Gender Gap

Economic and Social Conditions in Southern Africa 2002
Economic Impact of Environmental Degradation in Southern Africa.
ECA Subregional Office for Southern Africa.

Land tenure systems and Sustainable development in Southern Africa
A publication of the Southern Africa Regional Office. December 2003.
(12.23.2003)
----------------------------------
Land Tenure Systems and their Impacts on Food Security and Sustainable Development in Africa
------------------
Harnessing Technologies for Sustainable Development
A publication of the Economic and Social Policy Division. (08.23.2002)
-------------------------
Transboundary River/Lake Basin Water Development in Africa: Prospects, Problems, and Achievements
December 2000 - (09.02.2002)
------------------------------------
Population, Agriculture and Environment in Africa: Some Key Indicators
A publication of the Sustainable Development Division (SSD) - (09.12.2002)
---------------------------
The State of Demographic Transition in Africa
A publication of the Sustainable Development Division.
(08.21.2002)
-------------------------
Africa’s Population and Development Bulletin
June - July 2001
------------------------------------------
ECA Prospectus 2004
-----------------------
Scoring African Leadership for Better Health
------------------------
Assessing Regional Integration in Africa
July 2004
----------------------------
"Defining Priorities for Regional Integration"
Report of the Third African Development Forum (ADF III), which was held from 03 - 08 March 2002 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. (02.20.2003)
----------------------------
Report of the Fourth African Development Forum (ADF IV)
"Governance for a Progressing Africa"
11-15 October 2004, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

---------------------------------
"Striving for Good Governance in Africa"
Synopsis of the African Governance Report 2005.
-------------------------
Public Sector Management Reforms in Africa
---------------------
Best Practices in the Participatory Approach to Delivery of Social Services
------------------------
Assessing Regional Integration in Africa
The report provides a comprehensive evaluation of the state of Africa's integration process, showing where efforts have succeeded or failed including why intra African trade remains low; and how lack of macro-economic policy convergence and insufficient infrastructures hamper integration. 14 July 2004.
--------------------------
ECA Annual Report 2004
---------------------------
ICPD 10th Anniversary: Africa Regional Review Report
-----------------------
Poverty Mapping for Selected African Countries.
The countries covered are: Ethiopia, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and Tanzania. April 2003.
----------------------------
African Media and ICT4D: Documentary Evidence
A baseline study on the state of media reporting on ICT and information society issues in Africa. December 2003
-------------------------------
Africa Speaks
Perspectives on Africa’s Road toward the Information Society. November 2003.
------------------------
Policies and Plans on the Information Society: Status and Impact.
This volume, “Policies and Plans on the Information Society: Status and Impact’” is the first in a series of publications that document the development and formulation of national e-strategies under the framework of the Africa Information Society Initiative (AISI). October 2003.
--------------------------------
SCAN ICT
Indicators of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). The Impact of Information and Communications Technology at the country level. October 2003
-----------------------------
E- Strategies
National, Sectoral and Regional ICT Policies, Plans and Strategies. Sub-committee on Information and Communication Technology: ICT and Governance, April 2003.
------------------------
World Institute for Development Economics Research
Discussion Papers
:

DP2002/122 A. V. Y. Mbelle:
HICP Relief: Too Little, Too Late? Perspectives from a New Qualifier, Tanzania (PDF 175KB)

DP2002/114 Jennifer Mbabazi:
A CGE Analysis of the Short-run Welfare Effects of Tariff Liberalisation in Uganda (PDF 216KB)


DP2002/103 Ilham Haouas, Mahmoud Yagoubi and Almas Heshmati:
Labour-Use Efficiency in Tunisian Manufacturing Industries: A Flexible Adjustment Model (PDF 238KB)


DP2002/102 Ilham Haouas, Mahmoud Yagoubi and Almas Heshmati:
The Impacts of Trade Liberalization on Employment and Wages in Tunisian Industries (PDF 280KB)


DP2002/91 Mina. N. Baliamoune:
Assessing the Impact of One Aspect of Globalization on Economic Growth in Africa (PDF 116KB)


DP2002/84 Albertus Aochamub, Daniel Motinga, and Christoph Stork:
Economic Development Potential through IP Telephony for Namibia (PDF 733KB)


DP2002/83 Samia Satti O. M. Nour:
ICT Opportunities and Challenges for Development in the Arab World (PDF 167KB)


DP2002/79 Sagren Moodley:
Competing in the Digital Economy?: The Dynamics and Impacts of B2B E-commerce on the South African Manufacturing Sector (PDF 321KB)


DP2002/72 Steve Onyeiwu:
Inter-Country Variations in Digital Technology in Africa: Evidence, Determinants, and Policy Applications (PDF 296KB)



DP2002/66 Nancy N. Nafula:
Achieving Sustainable Universal Primary Education through Debt Relief: The Case of Kenya (PDF 255KB)


DP2002/65 Paul Kieti Kimalu:
Debt Relief and Health Care in Kenya (PDF 93KB)


DP2002/59 Mohammed Omran:
Testing for a Significant Change in the Egyptian Economy under the Economic Reform Programme Era (PDF 279KB)


DP2002/50 Nancy Birdsall, Stijn Claessens and Ishac Diwan:
Will HIPC Matter? The Debt Game and Donor Behaviour in Africa (PDF 277KB)
A shorter version of this publication is available as Working Paper 17 from the Center for Global Development.

DP2002/49 Samuel Fambon:
Endettement du Cameroun: Problèmes et solutions (PDF 594KB)


DP2002/44 Lisandro Abrego and Doris C. Ross:
Debt Relief under the HIPC Initiative. Context and Outlook for Debt Sustainability and Resource Flows (PDF 859KB)


DP2002/37 Christiana E.E. Okojie:
Gender and Education as Determinants of Household Poverty in Nigeria (PDF 337KB)


DP2002/35 Alemayehu Geda:
Debt Issues in Africa: Thinking beyond the HIPC Initiative to Solving Structural Problems (PDF 468KB)


DP2002/33 Steve Kayizzi-Mugerwa:
Fiscal Policy, Growth and Poverty Reduction in Uganda (PDF 152KB)


DP2002/27 Clas Wihlborg:
Insolvency and Debt Recovery Procedures in Economic Development: An Overview of African Law (PDF 425KB)


DP2002/26 Jean-Philippe Platteau:
The Gradual Erosion of the Social Security Function of Customary Land Tenure Arrangements in Lineage-Based Societies (PDF 470KB)


DP2002/25 Markus Goldstein, Alain de Janvry and Elisabeth Sadoulet:
Is a Friend in Need a Friend Indeed? Inclusion and Exclusion in Mutual Insurance Networks in Southern Ghana (PDF 162KB)


DP2002/14 Leonce Yapo:
Déterminants de l'endettement extérieur des PPTE: Cas de la Côte d'Ivoire (PDF 187KB)


DP2002/12 Steve Kayizzi-Mugerwa:
Privatization in sub-Saharan Africa: On Factors Affecting Implementation (PDF 341KB)


DP2002/04 Oliver Morrissey:
Making Debt Relief Conditionality Pro-Poor (PDF 236KB)


DP2002/01 Youssoufou Congo:
Performance of Microfinance Institutions in Burkina Faso (PDF 247KB)

DP 2001/146 Henning Tarp Jensen and Finn Tarp:
On the Choice of Appropriate Development Strategy: Insights from CGE Modelling of the Mozambican Economy (PDF 407KB)


DP 2001/144 Karin Kronlid:
Household Welfare and Education in Urban Ethiopia (PDF 624KB)


DP 2001/143 Aleš Bulír and A. Javier Hamann:
How Volatile and Unpredictable are Aid Flows, and What are the Policy Implications? (PDF 732KB)

DP 2001/141 Tony Addison:
Do Donors Matter for Institutional Reform in Africa? (PDF 256KB)


DP 2001/139 Machiko Nissanke and Benno Ferrarini:
Debt Dynamics and Contingency Financing: Theoretical Reappraisal of the HIPC Initiative (PDF 1724KB)


DP 2001/138 Justine Nannyonjo:
The HIPC Debt Relief Initiative: Uganda's Social Sector Reforms and Outcomes (PDF 318KB)


DP 2001/137 Erich Gundlach, José Navarro de Pablo and Natascha Weisert:
Education Is Good for the Poor: A Note on Dollar and Kraay (2001) (PDF 197KB)


DP 2001/133 Orlando San Martin:
Reaching the Poor: Fine Tuning Poverty Targeting Using a 'Poverty Map'-The Case of Mozambique (PDF 669KB)


DP 2001/131 Arne Bigsten:
Relevance of the Nordic Model for African Development (PDF 221KB)


DP 2001/130 Constantino J. Gode:
Sovereign Debt and Uncertainty in the Mozambican Economy (PDF 634KB)


DP 2001/126 Abdalla Hamdok:
Governance and Policy in Africa: Recent Experiences (PDF 168KB)


DP 2001/123 Neil McCulloch, Bob Baulch and Milasoa Cherel-Robson:
Poverty, Inequality and Growth in Zambia during the 1990s (PDF 508KB)


DP 2001/122 Geske Dijkstra and Niels Hermes:
The Uncertainty of Debt Service Payments and Economic Growth of HIPCs: Is there a Case for Debt Relief? (PDF 183KB)


DP 2001/121 David Booth:
PRSP Processes in Eight African Countries: Initial Impacts and Potential for Institutionalization (PDF 234KB)


DP 2001/119 Robert Osei and Peter Quartey:
The HIPC Initiative and Poverty Reduction in Ghana: An Assessment (PDF 268KB)


DP 2001/118 Marko Nokkala:
Simulating the Effects of Debt Relief in Zambia (PDF 104KB)


DP 2001/117 Marko Nokkala:
Sector Investments as part of National Fiscal Policy: Experience from ASIP in Zambia (PDF 237KB)


DP 2001/116 Maureen Were:
The Impact of External Debt on Economic Growth in Kenya: An Empirical Assessment (PDF 256KB)


DP 2001/115 Moses L. Golola:
Decentralization, Local Bureaucracies and Service Delivery in Uganda (PDF 254KB)


DP 2001/114 Rasmus Heltberg and Finn Tarp:
Agricultural Supply Response and Poverty in Mozambique (PDF 262KB)


DP 2001/113 Kunibert Raffer:
Debt Relief for Low-Income Countries: Arbitration as the Alternative to Present, Unsuccessful Debt Strategies (PDF 99KB)


DP 2001/112 Elaine Zuckerman:
Why Engendering PRSPs Reduces Poverty, and the Case of Rwanda (PDF 310KB)


DP 2001/110 European Network on Debt and Development:
Debt Reduction for Poverty Eradication in the Least Developed Countries: Analysis and Recommendations on LDC Debt (PDF 541KB)


DP 2001/109 Dick Durevall:
Reform of the Malawian Public Sector: Incentives, Governance and Accountability (PDF 277KB)


DP 2001/108 Aili Mari Tripp:
Non-formal Institutions, Informal Economies, and the Politics of Inclusion (PDF 236KB)

Africa’s formal economies responded poorly to economic reform measures in the 1980s and 1990s while informal markets and institutions responded dynamically and proved to be more resilient. Using comparative analysis of African informal economies, this study explains why this was the case. It outlines the economic rationales that drive these informal economies to show how their logic often derives from social considerations that may be at odds with the goals of profit maximization. It then maps out some of the institutional terrain within which the informal sector operates. The study also analyzes the extent to which government policies in Africa have facilitated and constrained the informal sector; it describes continuing impediments to the growth of local and informal markets; and explores incentives that would enhance informal institutions.

DP 2001/107 Adrian Fozzard and Mick Foster:
Changing Approaches to Public Expenditure Management in Low-income Aid Dependent Countries (PDF 376KB)


DP 2001/106 Anders Danielson:
Can HIPC Reduce Poverty in Tanzania? (PDF 192KB)


DP 2001/105 Jean-Claude Berthélemy:
HIPC Debt Relief and Policy Reform Incentives (PDF 176KB)


DP 2001/104 Arne Bigsten, Jörgen Levin, and Håkan Persson:
Debt Relief and Growth: A study of Zambia and Tanzania (PDF 275KB)


DP 2001/103 Matthew O. Odedokun and Jeffery I. Round:
Determinants of Income Inequality and its Effects on Economic Growth: Evidence from African Countries (PDF 451KB)

The paper empirically investigates, in the context of African countries, the determinants of income distribution and inequality, the effect of inequality on economic growth, and the channels through which inequality affects growth. Data for 35 countries over different periods in the last four decades were employed. Factors identified as having affected income distribution include the level of economic development attained, regional factors, size of government budget and the amount of it devoted to subsidies and transfers, phase of economic cycle, share of agricultural sector in total labour force, as well as human and land resources endowment. Some evidence that high inequality reduces growth is also found. The channels through which inequality affect growth are found to be through reduction in secondary and tertiary education investment, reduction in political stability, and increase in fertility rate. There is, however, no evidence that it affects private saving and investment or the size of government expenditure and taxation, contrary to what is contended in the theoretical literature.

DP 2001/100 Bernhard G. Gunter:
Does the HIPC Initiative Achieve its Goal of Debt Sustainability? (PDF 379KB)


DP 2001/99 Craig Burnside and Domenico Fanizza:
Hiccups for HIPCs? (PDF 362KB)


DP 2001/97 Tony Addison and Robert Osei:
Taxation and Fiscal Reform in Ghana (PDF 281KB)


DP 2001/96 Lisandro Abrego and Doris C. Ross:
Debt Relief under the HIPC Initiative: Context and Outlook for Debt Sustainability and Resource Flows (PDF 239KB)


DP 2001/94 E. S. K. Muwanga-Zake and Stephen Ndhaye:
The HIPC Debt Relief Initiative: Uganda's Experience (PDF 224KB)


DP 2001/91 Michael Grimm:
A Decomposition of Inequality and Poverty Changes in the Context of Macroeconomic Adjustment: A Microsimulation Study for Côte d'Ivoire (PDF 554KB)

This paper proposes a microeconomic decomposition of the evolution of income inequality in Côte d'Ivoire in the 1990s, allowing the in-depth analysis of simultaneous contributions of four types of phenomena to the evolution of the distribution of income: a change in the remuneration rates of observed and unobserved earnings determinants, a change in occupational preferences, and a change in the sociodemographic population structure. I show, for instance, that the increase in income inequality in Abidjan was the result of changes in the sociodemographic population structure and of changes in unobserved earnings determinants, even though higher activity, inflows in wage labour, a drop in returns to schooling, and the Ivorian/non-Ivorian wage differential worked toward a more equal distribution. Concerning the link between growth and inequality, it is interesting to note that both negative income growth in Abidjan as well as positive income growth in rural Côte d'Ivoire, were connected with rising inequality.

DP 2001/90 Tony Addison, Alemayehu Geda, Philippe Le Billon and S. Mansoob Murshed:
Financial Reconstruction in Conflict and 'Post-Conflict' Economies
(PDF 197KB)


DP 2001/87 Hendrik Van der Heijden:
Zambian Policy-making and the Donor Community in the 1990s (PDF 324KB)


DP 2001/86 Mohammed Salisu:
Incentive Structure, Civil Service Efficiency and the Hidden Economy in Nigeria (PDF 349KB)


DP 2001/85 José A. Sulemane and Steve Kayizzi-Mugerwa:
The Mozambican Civil Service Incentives, Reforms and Performance (PDF 282KB)


DP 2001/82 Linda Cotton and Vijaya Ramachandran:
Foreign Direct Investment in Emerging Economies: Lessons from sub-Saharan Africa (PDF 302KB)

This paper analyses prospects for foreign direct investment (FDI) in Africa. The problems with regard to attracting FDI in small economies are not that different than those in larger economies in the developing world. In particular, lack of infrastructure, cumbersome government regulations and restrictions on equity holdings by foreigners are common to both large and small countries. FDI flows could be a lot higher in sub- Saharan Africa if governments implemented a proper set of regulations that enabled investors to do business in a fair and consistent manner. In small countries, a single large project can be very significant in terms of raising interest in FDI. For example, Mozal in Mozambique has given the country greater visibility in the international arena. Also, if a small country is able to successfully implement a large project, it establishes itself as a credible host for FDI, thereby attracting further investment and employment.

DP 2001/80 Jörgen Levin:
Taxation in Tanzania (PDF 278KB)


DP 2001/77 Derrick L. Cogburn and Catherine Nyaki Adeya:
Prospects for the Digital Economy in South Africa: Technology, Policy, People, and Strategies (PDF 258KB)


DP 2001/70 Tony Killick:
Poverty-Reducing Institutional Change and PRSP Processes: The Ghana Case (PDF 522KB)
A slightly revised version of this paper, co-authored by Charles Abugre, is available electronically on request to t.killick@odi.org.uk

DP 2001/68 Peter Hjertholm:
Debt Relief and the Rule of Thumb: Analytical History of HIPC Debt Sustainability Targets (PDF 367KB)


DP 2001/66 Göte Hansson:
Building New States: Lessons from Eritrea (PDF 223KB)


DP 2001/65 Philippe Le Billon:
Fuelling War or Buying Peace: The Role of Corruption in Conflicts (PDF 309KB)


DP 2001/64 Carlos Castel-Branco, Christopher Cramer and Degol Hailu:
Privatization and Economic Strategy in Mozambique (PDF 221KB)


DP 2001/63 Rasmus Heltberg, Kenneth Simler and Finn Tarp:
Public Spending and Poverty in Mozambique (PDF 531KB)


DP 2001/62 Léonce Ndikumana:
Fiscal Policy, Conflict, and Reconstruction in Burundi and Rwanda (PDF 647KB)


DP 2001/57 Tony Addison and S. Mansoob Murshed:
Debt Relief and Civil War (PDF 205KB)


DP 2001/56 David L. Bevan:
The Fiscal Dimensions of Ethiopia's Transition and Reconstruction (PDF 358KB)


DP 2001/55 Tony Addison and Alemayehu Geda:
Ethiopia's New Financial Sector and Its Regulation (PDF 210KB)


DP 2001/54 Stergios Skaperdas:
Warlord Competition (PDF 144KB)


DP 2001/53 Yvonne M. Tsikata:
Owning Economic Reforms: A Comparative Study of Ghana and Tanzania (PDF 119KB)


DP 2001/52 Damiano Kulundu Manda:
Incentive Structure and Efficiency in the Kenyan Civil Service (PDF 102KB)


DP 2001/51 Tony Addison, Philippe Le Billon, and S. Mansoob Murshed:
Conflict In Africa: The Cost of Peaceful Behaviour (PDF 115KB)


DP 2001/48 Tony Addison and S. Mansoob Murshed:
From Conflict to Reconstruction: Reviving the Social Contract (PDF 117KB)


DP 2001/47 Renato Aguilar:
Angola's Incomplete Transition (PDF 97KB)


DP 2001/46 Jean-Paul Azam and Anke Hoeffler:
Violence Against Civilians in Civil Wars: Looting or Terror? (PDF 190KB)


DP 2001/39 Jörg Mayer:
Globalization, Technology Transfer, and Skill Accumulation in Low-Income Countries (PDF 138KB)
Also available from UNCTAD


DP 2001/38 Guy Mhone and Patrick Bond:
Botswana and Zimbabwe: Relative Success and Comparative Failure (PDF 123KB)


DP 2001/37 Deborah Bräutigam and Michael Woolcock:
Small States in a Global Economy: The Role of Institutions in Managing Vulnerability and Opportunity in Small Developing Countries (PDF 114KB)


DP 2001/28 Anders Danielson:
Economic and Institutional Reforms in French-speaking West Africa Impact on Efficiency and Growth (PDF 144KB)


DP 2001/23 Gaim Kibreab:
Displaced Communities and the Reconstruction of Livelihoods in Eritrea (PDF 117KB)


DP 2001/22 Mário Adauta de Sousa, Tony Addison, Björn Ekman
and Åsa Stenman:
From Humanitarian Assistance to Poverty Reduction in Angola (PDF 132KB)


DP2001/18 Tony Addison:
Reconstruction from War in Africa: Communities, Entrepreneurs, and States (PDF 174KB)


DP2001/16 Tony Addison:
From Conflict to Reconstruction (PDF 125KB)


DP2001/14 Marc Wuyts:
The Agrarian Question in Mozambique's Transition and Reconstruction (PDF 119KB)


DP2001/12 Tony Addison and Léonce Ndikumana:
Overcoming the Fiscal Crisis of the African State (PDF 215KB)

DP2003/90 Simon Appleton:
Regional or National Poverty Lines? The Case of Uganda in the 1990s (PDF 204KB)


DP2003/76 Tony Addison and Mina Baliamoune-Lutz:
Institutional Quality, Reforms and Integration in the Maghreb (PDF 206KB)


DP2003/70 Luc Christiaensen, Lionel Demery and Stefano Paternostro:
Reforms, Remoteness and Risk in Africa: Understanding Inequality and Poverty during the 1990s (PDF 281KB)


DP2003/66 Dirk Willem te Velde and Oliver Morrissey:
Spatial Inequality for Manufacturing Wages in Five African Countries PDF 238KB)

This paper uses data on individual earnings in manufacturing industry for five African countries in the early 1990s to test whether firms located in the capital city pay higher wages than firms located elsewhere, and whether such benefits accrue to all or only certain types of workers. Earnings equations are estimated that take into account worker characteristics (education and tenure) and relevant firm characteristics (notably size and whether foreign owned). Any location effect identified is therefore additional to appropriate control variables. There are two main findings. First, we find evidence of a ‘pure capital city premium’ equivalent to between 12 per cent and 28 per cent of nominal average earnings in the five countries. In some countries this location premium exceeds plausible consumer price differentials, between the capital and other urban areas. This does suggest that real (purchasing power) manufacturing wages are higher in the capital city (although this real premium is no more than ten per cent). Second, we find that skilled workers earn a higher wage premium in the capital city than those less skilled. However,...

DP2003/33 Mark McGillivray and Bazoumana Ouattara:
Aid, Debt Burden and Government Fiscal Behaviour: A New Model Applied to Côte d’Ivoire (PDF 191KB)


DP2003/15 George Mavrotas and Bazoumana Ouattara:
Aid Disaggregation, Endogenous Aid and the Public Sector in Aid-Recipient Economies: Evidence from Côte d’Ivoire (PDF 252KB)


DP2003/13 Samuel Munzele Maimbo and George Mavrotas:
Financial Sector Reforms and Savings Mobilization in Zambia (PDF 242KB)


DP2003/12 Roger Kelly and George Mavrotas:
Savings and Financial Sector Development: Panel Cointegration Evidence from Africa (PDF 211KB)


DP2003/10 Timothy M. Shaw:
Conflict and Peace-building in Africa: The Regional Dimensions (PDF 590KB)

DP2003/06 Shyamal K. Chowdhury and Susanne Wolf:
Use of ICTs and the Economic Performance of SMEs in East Africa (PDF 218KB)

This paper assesses the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and their impact on the economic performance of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) of three East African countries: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Findings of the paper suggest that the diffusion of ICT among East African SMEs is both industry and country specific. The empirical findings suggest that investment in ICT has a negative impact on labour productivity and a positive impact on general market expansion. However, such investment does not have any significant impact on enterprises’ return, nor does it determine enterprises exporter (non-exporter) status.

More Discussion Papers

Globalization and Development in Africa - 1998

Bibliographies

Related Papers

Books

S. Rasheed/E. Chole,
Human development: an African perspective,1994

U.N.,
Tokyo Declaration on African Development, 1996

U.N.,
Survey of Economic and Social conditions in Africa, 1995

U.N. Economic Commission for Africa, 21st Conference of Ministers , 1995
Global Coalition for Africa,
Tendences Economiques et Sociales en Afrique---english

Global Coalition for Africa,
Conférence Internationale de Tokyo sur le Développement de l'Afrique---english
ECHOES,
Gambling with world food security
M. ul-Haq,
Human Development in sub-Saharan Africa

R. Jolly,
Laying the foundations for sustained Africa development in the 21st Century: the promise of the World Summit for Children

North South Round Table,
Revitalizing Africa for the 21st Century -an agenda for renewal

M. Kebede,
Development and the African Philosophical Debate, in Journal of Sustainable Development

Radio Africana,
Education in Africa

J-M. Ela,
Western Development has failed. Looking to a new Africa, in Le Monde Diplomatique 1998

ICA, A strategy for Co-operative Development in Africa (1994) Part I
UNESCO,
Analyses, Agendas, and Priorities for Education in Africa

Equity and Growth Through Economic Research,
Does Africa grow differently? , 1999

Internet Journal of African Studies, Issue 2: Famine, March 1997
D. Porter and M. Onyach-Olaa,
Inclusive Planning and Allocation for Rural Services, in Development in Practice

OECD,
African Economic Outlook, 2001/2002
Individual country notes

ECA:
Economic Report on Africa 2000. Transforming Africa's economies

The World Bank:
Aid and reform in Africa. Lessons from ten case studies



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