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On Planning for Development:    Development
The Developmental State The state, civil society and development The neoliberal state Sustainable development
From Economic and Political Weekly
April 1, 2006
Vol. XLI, no. 13 (pp.1241-6)

Poverty and Capitalism
Barbara Harriss-White - 2006
University Professor of Development Studies; Director of the School of Interdisciplinary Area Studies programme - Faculty of Oriental Studies - University of Oxford

The 21st century has witnessed an impoverishment of the concept of development.

From its start as a project of capitalist industrialisation and agrarian change, the political direction and social transformation that accompany this process – and the deliberate attempt to order and mitigate its necessary ill effects on human beings and their habitats – development has been reduced to an assault on poverty, apparently driven by international aid, trade and financial agencies and festooned in targets. At the same time, the concept of poverty has been enriched by being recognised as having many dimensions – monetary/income poverty, human development poverty, social exclusion and poor peoples’ own understandings developed through participatory interactions [Laderchi et al 2003].

While it may be possible to mitigate poverty through social transfers, it is not possible to eradicate the processes that create poverty under capitalism.

Eight such processes are discussed: the creation of the preconditions; petty commodity production and trade; technological change and unemployment; (petty) commodification; harmful commodities and waste; pauperising crises; climate-change-related pauperisation; and the unrequired, incapacitated and/or dependent human body under capitalism. Ways to regulate these processes and to protect against their impact are discussed.

From the Center for Economic and Policy Research

The Scorecard on Development, 1960-2010: Closing the Gap?
Mark Weisbrot and Rebecca Ray
April 2011 (Graphics revised for clarity; April 21, 2011)

This paper is the third installment in a series (the first and second editions were in 2001 and 2005) that traces a long-term growth failure in most of the world's countries. For the vast majority of the world’s low- and middle-income countries, there was a sharp slowdown in economic growth for the two decades from 1980-2000, as compared to 1960-1980. By 2005, the story had still not changed very much.
As would be expected, this long-term decline in growth also brought a decline in progress on social indicators, including life expectancy, infant and child mortality, and education. This was not the result of “diminishing returns,” either in economic growth or in the achievable progress in social indicators, as we showed previously. More likely, it was a result of policy failures. But this widespread, historic long-term slowdown in economic growth and social progress received very little attention or investigation.
The past decade has shown a rebound in economic growth as well as progress on social indicators for many countries. In this paper, which looks at data for economic growth as well as health and education indicators for 191 countries over the last fifty years, we look at the economic performance of the last decade, as well as available social indicators, to see if the long slow-down in growth for the vast majority of countries has finally been reversed.
The question that we raised ten years ago, and is still relevant, is: how much of this growth slowdown can be attributed to the policy reforms that characterized the post-1980 era? For most low- and middle-income countries, these reforms included tighter fiscal and monetary policies (including inflation-targeting regimes and increasing independence of central banks); a large reduction of tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade; financial deregulation and increased opening to international capital flows; privatization of state-owned enterprises; increased protectionism in the area of intellectual property; and the general abandonment of state-led industrialization or development strategies.

Structural Change in the World Economy: Main Features and Trends - 2009
Olga Memedovic - Research and Statistics Branch Programme Coordination and Field Operations Division UNIDO - and Lelio Iapadre - Associate Professor of International Economics University of L’Aquila Johns Hopkins University — SAIS Bologna Center
UNU Institute for Comparative Regional Integration Studies

This working paper presents a quantitative analysis of sectoral trends in the global economy. After surveying the relevant theoretical and empirical literature on structural change, we discuss the historical evolution of agriculture, industry and services in terms of their share of world value added. This analysis refers to six continental regions and covers a period of 40 years. Constant-market-shares (CMS) analysis is then used to investigate changes in the contribution of regional aggregates to world production. This is followed by an analysis of the evolution of the manufacturing industry and the intensity of structural change for a sample of 30 countries and 18 sub-sectors for which data are available in the UNIDO INDSTAT 2, 2009 database. Three main findings resulted from the analysis. First, the long-term rise in the share of services in global value added has been slowing down in the last decade. Second, the upward trend in the global value added share of North America and Asia seems to be partly reverted in favour of other regions. Third, after a setback during the 1980s, structural transformation in the manufacturing sector has been accelerating in the last two decades. The purpose of this paper is to provide a starting point for more specific studies at sector, national and regional level.

From The World Bank Group
2005 International Comparison Program Global Purchasing Power Parities and Real Expenditures
2008 by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank

United Nations
Development Policy and Analysis Division

World Economic Situation and Prospects 2008
Executive Summary

The world economy facing uncertain times
After several years of robust growth, the world economy is now facing some serious challenges in sustaining its brisk pace. The end of the housing bubble in the United States of America, as well as the unfolding credit crisis, the decline of the United States dollar visà- vis other major currencies, the persistence of large global imbalances and high oil prices will all threaten the sustainability of global economic growth in the coming years.
Slower, but nonetheless robust, global economic growth in 2008
The growth of the world economy moderated somewhat from 3.9 per cent in 2006 to a nonetheless robust 3.7 per cent during 2007. The baseline forecast of the United Nations for 2008 is for growth of the world economy to slow further to 3.4 per cent, but the darkening clouds of downside risks are looming much larger than a year ago...

Institute for Policy Research and Development
See its International Academic Advisory Board
The Institute for Policy Research & Development (IPRD) is an independent research institute for interdisciplinary security studies, analysing international terrorism, military interventions, as well as national and international conflicts, in the context of global ecological, energy and economic crises. Founded in April 2001 in Brighton, a UN ‘Peace Messenger’ City for 20 years, the Institute now runs from the heart of London as an informal, non-profit international network of specialist scholars, experts and analysts.

Tony Addison:
Development Policy: An Introduction for Students
(PDF 151KB)
This paper discusses development policy objectives, noting how these have changed over the years, with a more explicit focus on poverty reduction coming recently to the fore. It also examines the relationship between economic growth and poverty reduction. The paper then discusses how to achieve economic growth, starting with the caveat that growth must be environmentally sustainable, and moves on to the big question of the respective roles for the market mechanism and the state in allocating society’s productive resources. The paper next discusses how economic reform has been implemented, and the political difficulties that arise. It concludes that getting development policy right has the potential to lift millions out of poverty.

Tony Addison, George Mavrotas, and Mark McGillivray:
Development Assistance and Development Finance: Evidence and Global Policy Agendas
(PDF 202KB)
Understanding the development effects of official aid is crucial to building a better bridge between research and policy. This paper reviews the current evidence regarding the impact of aid on growth and poverty reduction, and develops a new narrative. In the light of this narrative, the paper then examines aid trends, focusing on the regions of sub-Saharan Africa and the Pacific. The paper then turns to recent discussion of new and innovative sources of development finance and considers how research has influenced the policy debate through a recent UNU-WIDER study for the UN General Assembly. The paper concludes that aid broadly works, that poverty would be higher in the absence of aid, and that the shortfall in aid during the 1990s has, by implication, made it more difficult to meet the Millennium Development Goals. Hence, a considerable catch-up in aid and other development finance flows is now necessary if poverty is to be substantially reduced by 2015.

John Toye:
Modern Bureaucracy
(PDF 181KB)
Max Weber believed that bureaucracy could be understood by analysing its ideal-typical characteristics, and that these characteristics would become more pervasive as the modern age advanced. Weber’s horizontal account of bureaucracy can be criticised on various grounds, including its unrealistic notion of bureaucratic rationality. An alternative view is proposed, namely, that the development of state bureaucracies is driven by the trajectory of the highpower politics in which they are nested.
This claim is examined in the light of historical examples of the evolution of bureaucracies – in Prussia, Britain, the USA and Japan. In analysing these cases, the paper examines the original visions behind different institutional designs in different countries, and discusses how the vision was formed and how durable it proved to be. In contrast to sociological and historical explanations, the analytical contribution of new institutional economists to understanding the problems of bureaucratic evolution is assessed.
Then, moving from positive to normative, it is asked why there is an evaluative ambiguity in the idea of modern bureaucracy. In other words, why is it at the same time regarded as an essential requirement of a developmental state, and as a pathological aspect of the state’s executive action? Five common complaints about bureaucracy are discussed in the light of Peter Evans’s ‘hybridity model’ of public action, leading to the conclusion that some of these problems are quite deep-seated and likely to be unyielding to recent attempts at reform.

Louis Emmerij:
Turning Points in Development Thinking and Practice
(PDF 90KB)
Why and when do turning points occur? How are they prepared? What are the choices before us when it comes to economic and social development policies? What is the role of culture in development? Do ideas play a role? What are the interests behind the ideas? The present paper tries to answer these and other questions and compares the advantages and disadvantages of global development theories with regional and local development policies that put more emphasis on the role of culture in economic development.
Original version presented to WIDER in June 2005

DP2003/38 Maiju Perälä:
‘Looking at the Other Side of the Coin’: The Relationship between Classical Growth and Early Development Theories
(PDF 229KB)
This paper extends the history of thought narrative on Allyn Young to recognize the close relationship that the classical growth theory has with the early development theory, as Young’s externalities-fuelled, cumulative growth process influenced the theoretical thought of the early development theory pioneers, Paul Rosenstein-Rodan and Ragnar Nurkse. The conditions that prevent the development of underdeveloped regions, indivisibilities and inelasticities of supplies and demands, represent the breakdown of the conditions that Young highlights as necessary for self-sustaining growth to occur. Hence, Young’s cumulative growth process underlies the view of these early development theorists, though their focus is on the malfunctioning and restarting of this process.

DP2003/37 Maiju Perälä:
Persistence of Underdevelopment: Does the Type of Natural Resource Endowment Matter?
(PDF 283KB)
This paper examines growth successes and failures across countries and notes the latter’s perplexing predominance among ex ante low-income economies. An explanation for this persistence of underdevelopment is proposed through an empirical investigation that brings forth evidence on the importance of natural resource endowment type on growth or, more appropriately, lack of it. The results show that, in the absence of social cohesion, the nature of natural resource abundance bears great significance as a natural resource endowment characterized by oil and/or mineral resources is more negatively correlated with growth than a resource endowment that is agricultural. The robustness of this result is tested across a number of growth regression specifications within the literature.

From the International Monetary Fund

From the United Nations Organisation - April 2006
  • International Day of Reflection on the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda (7 April)

    Launches Action Plan to Prevent Genocide Involving UN System in Speech to Commission on Human Rights
    Following is the speech delivered today by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan to the Commission on Human Rights at a special meeting to observe the International Day of Reflection on the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda. The meeting was held at the Assembly Hall of the Palais des Nations. The speech was delivered after the participants observed two minutes of silence in memory of the victims of the genocide:
    “It is good that we have observed those minutes of silence together. We must never forget our collective failure to protect at least eight hundred thousand defenceless men, women and children who perished in Rwanda ten years ago. Such crimes cannot be reversed. Such failures cannot be repaired. The dead cannot be brought back to life. So what can we do?"...

  • World Health Day (7 April)

    Each year on April 7th, the world celebrates World Health Day. On this day around the globe, thousands of events mark the importance of health for productive and happy lives. To reduce child mortality, improve maternal health and combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases are among the Millennium Development Goals which all Member States have pledged to meet by the year 2015.

  • World Book and Copyright Day (23 April)

    23 April is a symbolic date for world literature for on this date in 1616, Cervantes, Shakespeare and Inca Garcilaso de la Vega all died. It is also the date of birth or death of other prominent authors such as Maurice Druon, Haldor K.Laxness, Vladimir Nabokov, Josep Pla and Manuel Mejía Vallejo. 
    It was a natural choice for UNESCO's General Conference, held in Paris in 1995, to pay a world-wide tribute to books and authors on this date, encouraging everyone, and in particular young people, to discover the pleasure of reading and gain a renewed respect for the irreplaceable contributions of those who have furthered the social and cultural progress of humanity. In this respect, UNESCO created both the World Book and Copyright Day and the UNESCO Prize for Children's and Young People's Literature in the Service of Tolerance.

  • United Nations Literacy Decade (2003-2012)

    While societies enter into the information and knowledge society, and modern technologies develop and spread at rapid speed, 860 million adults are illiterate, over 100 million children have no access to school, and countless children, youth and adults who attend school or other education programmes fall short of the required level to be considered literate in today´s complex world.

  • International Decade for Action: Water for Life (2005-2015)

    A United Nations office to support the International Decade for Action “Water for Life” 2005-2015 opened in Zaragoza, Spain, on 5 October 2007. The office will be managed by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) and will facilitate the coordinated implementation of UN-Water’s work on water and sanitation, especially in the areas of communication and advocacy to raise awareness of the challenges and opportunities to solve global water and sanitation issues.

  • Water Day

    The United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution A/RES/47/193 of 22 December 1992 by which 22 March of each year was declared World Day for Water, to be observed starting in 1993, in conformity with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) contained in Chapter 18 (Fresh Water Resources) of Agenda 21. States were invited to devote the Day, as appropriate in the national context, to concrete activities such as the promotion of public awareness through the publication and diffusion of documentaries and the organization of conferences, round tables, seminars and expositions related to the conservation and development of water resources and the implementation of the recommendations of Agenda 21.

  • International Year of Deserts and Desertification (2006)

    The United Nations General Assembly, at its 58th session, adopted resolution A/Res/58/211 which declares 2006 the International Year of Deserts and Desertification. The decision was taken to help prevent the exacerbation of desertification around the globe. The General Assembly invites all countries, international and civil society organizations to celebrate the Year 2006 and to support public awareness activities related to desertification and land degradation.

The Reith Lectures.
Reith 2007
Reith 2006
The Triumph of Technology (2005)
This year's Reith Lecturer is the distinguished engineer, Lord Broers who is President of the Royal Academy of Engineering and Chairman of the House of Lords Science and Technology Committee.
Lecture 1:
Technology will Determine the Future of the Human Race
Lecture 2:
Lecture 3:
Innovation and Management
Lecture 4:
Nanotechnology and Nanoscience
Lecture 5:
Risk and Responsibility
I am Right, you are Dead (2004)
This year's Reith lecturer is Nobel Prize-winning poet and playwright, Wole Soyinka, who was imprisoned in Nigeria for his opposition to dictatorship.
Lecture 1:
The Changing Mask of Fear
Lecture 2:
Power and Freedom
Lecture 3:
Rhetoric that Binds and Blinds
Lecture 4:
A Quest for Dignity
Lecture 5:
I am Right; You are Dead

The Emerging Mind (2003)
This year's Reith lecturer is the noted neuroscientist Vilayanur S. Ramachandran, Director of the Centre for Brain and Cognition at the University of California (San Diego).
Lecture 1:
Phantoms in the Brain
Lecture 2:
Synapses and the Self
Lecture 3:
The Artful Brain
Lecture 4:
Purple Numbers and Sharp Cheese
Lecture 5:
Neuroscience - the New Philosophy

A Question of Trust (2002)
Onora O'Neill challenges current approaches to accountability, investigates sources of deception in our society and re-examines questions of press freedom.
Lecture 1:
Spreading Suspicion
Lecture 2:
Trust and Terror
Lecture 3:
Called to Account
Lecture 4:
Trust and Transparency
Lecture 5:
Licence to Deceive

The End of Age (2001)
Tom Kirkwood, Professor of Medicine and head of the Department of Gerontology at the University of Newcastle.
Dramatic increases in life expectancy are shaking the structure of societies around the world and profoundly altering our perceptions of life and death.
1: Brave Old World
2: Thread of Life
3: Sex and Death
4: Making Choices
5: New Directions

Reith 2000
Reith 1999
The subject of the 1999 lecture series is the Runaway World
Anthony Giddens speaks to audiences around the world on the theme of globalisation.

Friends of the Earth - 8 November 2005
Britain: Young people take action on climate change
Sixty per cent of young people, aged 8-14, are concerned that the world will suffer the effects of climate change when they are adults and more than seventy per cent of them already take action at home or school to save energy, a new survey reveals today. The results are published as part of Friends of the Earth's activity week for schools `Shout about climate change', which runs from 7-11 November 2005.

Issues of Journal of Third World Studies:
From PAE, No 33, 14 September 2005
The Rise and Demise of the New Public Management

Wolfgang Drechsler
(University of Tartu and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia)
Within the public sphere, the most important reform movement of the last quarter of a century has been the New Public Management (NPM). It is of particular interest in the post-autistic economics (pae) context because NPM largely rests on the same ideology and epistemology as standard textbook economics (STE) is based, and it has had, and still has, similar results.
From PAE, No. 33, 14 September 2005
Forum on Economic Reform

Can the World Bank Be Fixed?
David Ellerman
(University of California at Riverside)
If the goal of development assistance is to foster autonomous development, then most aid and "help" is actually unhelpful in the sense of either overriding or undercutting the autonomy of those being "helped." The two principal forms of unhelpful "help" are social engineering and charitable relief. The World Bank is the primary example over the last half century of the failures of social engineering to "engineer" development. Frustration over these failures, particularly in Africa, is now leading the Bank and many other development agencies towards the other form of unhelpful help, namely, long-term charitable relief. The paper outlines some of the reasons for the failure of socially engineered economic, legal, and social reforms both in the developing world and in the post-socialist transition countries. Finally, the argument   is summarized in five structural reasons why the World Bank cannot be "fixed."
The World Bank Group - 31 May 1994
Governance - the World Bank ' s experience
This report summarizes the governance work undertaken by the World Bank in the last two years. It provides an overview of governance activities in lending, economic and sector work, and in research and dialogue. Progress across regions is reported under the four major components of governance identified in the 1992 governance report: 1) public sector management; 2) accountability; 3) legal framework for development; and 4) transparency and information. In addition, other issues that are related to Bank activities - such as more participatory approaches to policy, program, and project design and implementation, military expenditures; and human rights - are raised. Internal procedures and organizational issues relevant to the Bank ' s governance work are also discussed
RRojas Databank is a member of Development Gateway hosted by The World Bank
Jeffrey Sachs - 8 April 2005
Message to Washington: get serious about development
Giving to developing countries has been underrated by U.S. policymakers for years. And yet, the Bush Administration has recently proclaimed it to be a pivotal part of U.S. national security. Jeff Sachs, the Director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, wonders: Are these claims for real — or just empty promises?
New Economic Foundation:
The Real World Economics

The international economic system creates damaging inequalities between rich and poor, and fuels climate change and environmental degradation. Through Real World Economic Outlook, nef aims to expose the problems with the international finance and economic systems and create appropriate remedies. We are also researching and campaigning on changes to global governance to tackle international issues like climate change, and work by jubilee research continues nef’s pioneering involvement in tackling international debt. transforming markets goes beyond corporate responsibility to set out a new vision for harnessing and channelling enterprise to meet social and environmental need.
World Bank:
Prospects for the Global Economy 2005

From The World Bank Group
The Role and Effectiveness of Development Assistance
Lessons from World Bank Experience
A Research Paper from the Development Economics Vice Presidency of the World Bank
18 March 2005
Development and Security

By The Globalist
Is too much emphasis put on the military dimension of security today? And how does global poverty factor into the equation? These are the issues explored by Horst Köhler — now Germany’s President and previously the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund. In this Read My Lips feature, Mr. Köhler argues that the world needs a broader interpretation of the term “security.”
15 March 2005
Robber Barons of the Internet Age?
By Guy Pfeffermann and Bernard Wasow
Poor countries lack infrastructure and IT hardware that could accelerate development. For that reason, there are calls for a so-called digital solidarity fund for developing nations that would permit these nations to acquire technology as a way of promoting economic growth and improving the life of its people. Guy Pfeffermann and Bernard Wasow examine how and why many of the world's poorest countries are being denied access to the global web.
The World Bank Group acknowledges the dramatic social and economic damage caused by its economic policies imposed on developing societies in the last 30 years, and launches a new neo-liberal recipe called "development policy lending". Of course, being The World Bank Group the "visible hand" of the big international capital, its new development policy lending looks very much  the same old wine in new bottles. Below are the official press releases (Dr. Róbinson Rojas)
Aug 09, 2004 From Adjustment Lending to Development Policy Lending: An Evolution
Aug 09, 2004 Why Development Policy Lending’s Time Has Come
Aug 06, 2004 Development Policy Lending Replaces Adjustment Lending
United Nations Millennium Declaration - September 2000
Millenium Development Goals
1.-Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
2.-Achieve universal primary education
3.-Promote gender equality and empower women
4.-Reduce child mortality
5.-Improve maternal health
6.-Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
7.-Ensure environmental sustainability
8.-Develop a global partnership for development

The World Bank Group
World Development Indicators 2004
Fighting against poverty (16-12-2004)
Reflect and ICT Project
This DFID-funded project is exploring potential applications of ICTs for poor and marginalised people, linking to existing Reflect groups in Uganda, Burundi and India.
During the first year (2003), participating groups were encouraged to analyse issues around their own access to and control of information relating to their livelihoods: looking at the value of information to their own lives, the control of information resources, existing sources of information and communication mechanisms

ICT for Development: empowerment or exploitation?
Learning from Reflect ICTs project

By Hannah Beardon et al

External Debt Tables (Excel format)
(The World Bank ):
Years 1970, 1980, 1990, 1994-2000

United Nations - Economic Comission for Latin America and the Caribbean
Twenty-Ninth Session, Brasilia, Brasil
6-10 May 2002
Globalization and Development

The process that has come to be known as globalization, -i.e., the progressively greater influence being exerted by worldwide economic, social and cultural processes over national or regional ones— is clearly leaving its mark on the world of today. This is not a new process. Its historical roots run deep. Yet the dramatic changes in terms of space and time being brought about by the communications and information revolution represent a qualitative break with the past. In the light of these changes, the countries of the region have requested the secretariat to focus the deliberations of the twenty-ninth session of ECLAC on the issue of globalization and development.
Globalization clearly opens up opportunities for development. We are all aware -and rightfully so- that national strategies should be designed to take advantage of the potential and meet the requirements associated with greater integration into the world economy.
This process also, however, entails risks:
risk generated by new sources of instability in trade flows and, especially, finance;
the risk that countries unprepared for the formidable demands of competitiveness in today’s world may be excluded from the process;
and the risk of an exacerbation of the
structural heterogeneity existing among social sectors and regions within countries whose linkages with the world economy are segmented and marginal in nature.
Many of these risks are associated with two disturbing aspects of the globalization process:
The first is the bias in the current form of market globalization created by the fact that the mobility of capital and the mobility of goods and services exist alongside severe restrictions on the mobility of labour. This is reflected in the asymmetric, incomplete nature of the international agenda that accompanies the globalization process. This agenda does not, for example, include labour mobility. Nor does it include mechanisms for ensuring the global coherence of the central economies’ macroeconomic policies, international standards for the appropriate taxation of capital, or agreements regarding the mobilization of resources to relieve the distributional tensions generated by globalization between and within countries...The second...

United Nations University
World Institute for Development Economic Research
WIDER Conference on The New Economy in Development
Helsinki, Finland, 10-11 May 2002
The role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the process of development

Third World Network:
"Economically speaking, we are more dependent on the ex-colonial powers than we ever were. The World Bank and the IMF are playing the role that our ex-colonial masters used to play."
Martin Khor,
World Bank-IMF
Structural Adjustment Policies
Third World Debt
Transnational Corporations
Social Development

Andre Gunder Frank (1995)
The Underdevelopment of Development
"I intend to undertake a political sociology of knowledge of the study of development based on my own experience and perspective. I review the three varieties of development economics; neo-classical (right), Keynesian (center) and Marxist (left) and autobiographically my own participation in all of them. Perhaps I can also clarify how on further reflection my choice for the study of development is now none of the above. I would not wish to find myself in any of these camps when H.W. Arndt (1987: 162-3) can write:..."

Róbinson Rojas on:

The 'adjustment' of the world economy
The 'structural adjustment' of today's world economy, like in earlier periods, is an interactive process between firms, markets and states. The process, like in earlier periods, entails that the political establishment serves the economic establishment, and the economic establishment serves the most powerful capital, the latter being, in the second half of the twentieth century, what in general terms is defined as 'transnational corporations'.

The transnational corporate system in the late 1990s
Transnational direct investment in less developed societies in the 1990s is consolidating further the historical regional spheres of influence by the former colonial powers. By and large, Latin America, Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe are becoming more than ever "spheres of control of production and trade" by the financial and industrial centers of the world. Globalization is a task undertaken by the transnational corporate system, and the system has three clear centers (United States, Japan, and the major economies of the European Union). Those centers attract almost totally the flows of international payment to factors of production, creating a financial situation where capital flows from poor societies to rich societies, as it was in the times of colonization and imperial expansion from the 1500s to the 1930s.

A market-friendly strategy for development
Since the mid-1970s in the case of Chile and the early 1980s in the case of the rest of the countries in the region, Latin America have been applying "a market-friendly strategy for development" (see R. Rojas, International capital and intellectual dishonesty). The model, being based on what I call "free-market fundamentalism", will develop very well defined features, which will affect one factor of production (labour) in several negative ways while it will give the other factor of production (capital) the opportunity to become stronger, and more efficient. (The effects on the pattern of production, mainly leading to a fractured and dependent capitalist economy, are described in R. Rojas: 15 years of monetarism in Latin America: time to scream ).

Notes on agribusiness in the 1990s
The enormous economic-political power that transnational corporations in agribusiness can exercise in the host countries where they operate comes mainly from the links between production and trade in what is called 'vertical integration'.
United Nation's World Investment Report 1996, "Investment, Trade and International Policy Arrangements", U.N., 1996, describes the dynamics driving agribusiness towards oligopolistic markets:
"...renewable resources products are imported by firms of the home country (as a rule, a developed country), normally in the first instance through arm's length contracts, i.e. by trade between...
Transnational corporations in developing countries
"The politics of the new imperialism is characterized by the collusion of the multinationals, Latin American militaries, the managers of state enterprises, and a Latin American bourgeoisie that has accommodated itself to the new international division of labour. Within this context, the hypothesized relationship between economic development and democracy examined above becomes irrelevant because in the imperialist system it is not the form of the government that matters but the fact of economic and political domination by the agents of international capitalism. Wether the game is populist, democratic reformist, or military authoritarian makes little difference because real power continues to be held by the same players" (G. W. Wynia, "The politics of Latin American Development", Cambrige University Press, 1978, p. 319)
Latin America: blockages to development
It is argued that, so far, all theories of the Latin American process have been biased by an external approach. Examining the theoretical foundations of these theories, it is concluded that these cannot explain the class and production structures existing in the region, neither can predict the emergence of qualitatively new phenomena. Having criticised the discourses of underdevelopment, dependency, development ( modernization ), and world system theories, the analysis then proceeds with the argument that a theory of the Latin American process must conceptualize the social organization of the continent as an entity in itself, and not as an appendage to the development of capitalism in the industrialized countries. Such a theory must be centered on the internal dynamics of the Latin American social structure, and then assess the actual role played by capitalism and imperialism in its policy.
Development Studies: Researching for the big bosses?
In the late 1990s, development research, following the path of development studies in Western European and North American universities, have been concerned almost totally with how international agencies can and should encourage development, and very little with the empirical study of social change as taking place in a global environment in which the policy framework at the international level reduces the scope for manoeuvre at the national level. By and large, contemporary research in development has become a "subcontracting" activity, where the financing bodies are the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and large transnational corporations, all of them interested in imposing a particular type of "modernisation" on less developed societies, regardless the suffering inflicted on large sectors of the population. Other sources of finance, of course, are governmental organizations in the industrialized countries interested more on expanding their trade than helping to "develop" other societies. Thus, by and large, contemporary development research became a third rate non-scientific activity loosing the scientific ground conquered in the 1960s and early 1970s mainly by Latin American scholars and by a few academics in the United States and Western Europe.
International capital and intellectual dishonesty
The basic rationale of what loosely is quoted or misquoted as "export- led growth" has its foundation on the ideological position that capitalist market always clears, and therefore delivers goods and services as needed by those members of society who can buy them. The old triple alliance between the state, domestic monopolic capital and foreign capital was changed to a double alliance (domestic monopolic capital and foreign capital) with a political warden (the state) making sure that the domestic market was firmly in the hands of the double alliance. In a more sophisticated fashion, the intellectuals employed/hired by the World Bank did put together, in 1991, the following conceptualization:...

United Nations:
Declaration on the Right to Development
... Article 1
1. The right to development is an inalienable human right by virtue of which every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized.
2. The human right to development also implies the full realization of the right of peoples to self-determination, which includes, subject to the relevant provisions of both International Covenants on Human Rights, the exercise of their inalienable right to full sovereignty over all their natural wealth and resources.
Article 2
1. The human person is the central subject of development and should be the active participant and beneficiary of the right to development...
International Conference on Financing for Development

The International Conference on Financing for Development was held from 18-22 March 2002 in Monterrey, N.L., Mexico. This United Nations-hosted conference on key financial and development issues attracted 50 Heads of State or Government, over 200 ministers as well as leaders from the private sector, civil society and all the major intergovernmental financial, trade, economic, and monetary organizations.
The culmination of a four-year preparatory process, the Conference  adopted the Monterrey Consensus, in which developed, developing and transition economy countries pledged to undertake important actions in domestic, international and systemic policy matters.
December of 2002, the General Assembly set in motion a detailed follow-up intergovernmental process, as called for in the Consensus, to monitor implementation and carry foward the international discussion of policies for financing development.  The Assembly also called on the Secretary-General to establish a standing secretariat to support the process. The Financing for Development Office was then created in the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA).

This web site, maintained by the Financing for Development Office, serves to disseminate information on all aspects of the follow-up process.

Social Watch Annual Reports:
2007: In dignitiy and rights. Making the universal right to social security a reality
2006: Impossible architecture
2005: Roars and whispers

2004: Fear and Want. Obstacles to Human Security
2003 : The Poor and the Market
2002: The social impact of globalisation in the world
2001: Much ado...
2000: From the summits to the grassroots
1999: From the summits to the grassroots
1998: Equity and social development
1997: From the summits to the grassroots
1996: Women and citizenship in Latin America

S. Raghavan/S. Chatterjee (June 24, 2001)
How your chocolate may be tainted
DALOA, Ivory Coast - There may be a hidden ingredient in the chocolate cake you baked, the candy bars your children sold for their school fund-raiser o that fudge ripple ice cream cone you enjoyed on Saturday afternoon.
Slave labor.
Forty-three percent of the world's cocoa beans, the raw material in chocolate, come from small, scattered farms in this poor West African country. And on some of the farms, the hot, hard work of clearing the fields and harvesting the fruit is done by boys who were sold or tricked into slavery. Most of them are

between the ages of 12 and 16. Some are as young as 9.
The lucky slaves live on corn paste and bananas. The unlucky ones are whipped, beaten and broken like horses to harvest the almond-sized beans that are made into chocolate treats for more fortunate children in Europe and America.

Project Syndicate is an international association of 208 newspapers in 105 countries, devoted to the following objectives:
*bringing distinguished voices from around the world to informed national audiences so as to create a global forum for broadening debate and exchanging ideas;
*strengthening the independence of newspapers in postcommunist and developing countries through a variety of training programs;
*fostering professional links among member papers.

Submerging markets. Tracking the global development crisis

A. Tausch: Submerging markets. The development marathon, 1960-2000, and its lessons for East Central Europe

IMF: Finance & Development

The World Bank: Public Disclosure Authorized WPS 24
Financial structure and economic development
Firm, Industry and Country Evidence
Thorsten Beck, Asli Demirgfic-Kunt, Ross Levine and Vojislav Maksimovic

World Development Sources
( from World Bank reports and
110,000 documents online)

U.S. Department of State:
1999 Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices
1998 Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices
1997 Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices
1996 Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices
1995 Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices
J. Foran: The future of revolutions at the fin-de-siecle
DEVELOPMENTS (published by the DFID)
REPORTS: science from the developing world
SciDevNet: news, views and information about science, technology and development
United Nations
Economic and Social Development
Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Division for Development Policy Analysis
Division for Economic and Social Council Support and Coordination
Division for Social Policy and Development
Division for Sustainable Development
Division for the Advancement of Women
Office of the Special Coordinator for Africa and the Least Developed Countries
Population Division
Statistics Division
DESA News - the newsletter of the Department produced by the Information Support Unit with feature articles by DESA staff
| Search | Parliament | Research | Governments | Regions | Issues

Other United Nations economic and social development secretariats
U.N. Agenda 21: Implementation of the Rio commitments
Third World Institute
Progress in Development Studies (journal)

UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics Online

UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2008The goal of the UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics online is to provide the statistical data essential for the analysis of the world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. This database provides the opportunity to disseminate the economic, demographic and social series which serve as a fundamental support for UNCTAD´s research tasks, intergovernmental dialogue, and technical assistance.

This new version of the Handbook introduces data for 2007 for most of the series as well as consolidated data for previous years. In addition to the online version, the publication is available in two complementary formats, the printed edition and the DVD version, so that each user can take the best advantage of the available statistics.

The data available from the Handbook of Statistics online are structured into the following parts:

Handbook of Statistics 2008:
| Online version | DVD version | Printed version |

Social Indicators of Development - 1995
A World Bank data collection for over 170 countries, targeting the social effects of economic development. Indicators for each country include: size, growth, and structure of population; determinants of population growth; labor force; education and illiteracy; natural resources; income and poverty; expenditure on food, housing, fuel and power, transport and communication; and investment in medical care and education.

International Development Research Centre
IDRC ("Centro Internacional de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo") is a Canadian Crown corporation that works in close collaboration with researchers from the developing world in their search for the means to build healthier, more equitable, and more prosperous societies.

Development Assistance Committee  (OECD)
The Development Assistance Committee (DAC, is the principal body through which the OECD deals with issues related to co-operation with developing countries.

Center for Economic and Social Rights

The Center for Economic and Social Rights (CESR) works to promote social justice through human rights. In a world where poverty and inequality deprive entire communities of dignity, justice and sometimes life, we seek to uphold the universal human rights of every human being to education, health, food, water, housing, work, and other economic, social and cultural rights essential to human dignity.

Extreme poverty and rising inequality should not simply be considered an inevitable tragedy. Rather, they are often the result of conscious policy choices by governments and other powerful actors (such as corporations or international financial institutions) that undermine people's access to the full range of human rights. CESR therefore seeks to hold governments and other actors accountable to their obligations to respect, protect and fulfill economic and social rights, as well as civil and political rights.

CESR is working to:

  • Promote the mainstreaming of economic, social and cultural rights in all economic and social policymaking, highlighting impacts of key global policy decisions;
  • Develop new methodologies for measuring and monitoring economic and social rights compliance, contributing to more effective accountability for economic, social and cultural rights;
  • Empower and build capacities of organizations within and beyond the human rights movement to advocate more effectively for the fulfillment of these rights;
  • Advocate for greater accountability for economic, social and cultural rights within states and internationally, including at the United Nations and regional human rights forums.
CESR works in partnership with national and international organizations in different countries across a range of disciplines.

"The idea of economic and social rights as human rights expresses the moral intuition that, in a world rich in resources and the accumulation of human knowledge, everyone ought to be guaranteed the basic means for sustaining life, and that those denied these are victims of a fundamental injustice."
--David Beetham, Democracy and Human Rights, 2000

Economic and Social Council /UN


Development Programme /UNDP

Democratic Governance
Poverty Reduction
Crisis Prevention & Recovery
Environment & Energy

Economics Journals on the Web:
Economic Review
Taylor and Francis Journals Online

CatchWord Home Page

Development in Practice (Oxfam site)

Development Journal (SID)
The making and unmaking of the Third World through development
By Arturo Escobar - 1995
The following text is extracted from Chapter 2, 'The Problematization of Poverty: The Tale of Three Worlds and Development', of Encountering Development The Making and Unmaking of the Third World, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995. The book poses a number of fundamental questions. For example, why did the industrialized nations of North America and Europe come to be seen as the appropriate models of post-World War II societies in Africa, Asia and Latin America? How did the postwar discourse on development actually create the so-called Third World? The book shows how development policies became mechanisms of control that were just as pervasive and effective as their colonial counterparts. The development apparatus generated categories powerful enough to shape the thinking even of its occasional critics, while poverty and hunger became widespread. 'Development' was not even partially 'deconstructed' until the 1980s, when new tools for analysing the representation of social reality were applied to specific 'Third World' cases. The author deploys these new techniques in a provocative analysis of development discourse and practice in general, concluding with a discussion of alternative visions for a post-development era.

The State, the community and society in social development
by Fernando Henrique Cardoso, President of the Federative Republic of Brazil
(Translation of the revised text of President Cardoso's address at the First Regional Follow-up Conference on the World Social Development Summit Meeting (Sao Paulo, 6-9 April 1997))
"The World Summit for Social Development, held in Copenhagen on 11 and 12 March 1995, brought up once more the ideals which gave rise to the United Nations at the San Francisco Conference and which have since been reasserted in many forums of the Organization. The maintenance of peace and security, although an irreplaceable element in the peaceful coexistence of nations, was not the only objective of that Conference, however: it also sought to lay the foundations for a form of coexistence which would make possible more harmonious development. The United Nations Charter which emerged from that meeting was the clear expression of a humanistic spirit and of the quest for democratic ideals and values which made human beings the centre of governments’ concern."

United Nations - The General Assembly - 1 May 1974
Declaration on the establishment of a New International Economic Order
We, the Members of the United Nations, Having convened a special session of the General Assembly to study for the first time the problems of raw materials and development, devoted to the consideration of the most important economic problems facing the world community,
Bearing in mind the spirit, purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations to promote the economic advancement and social progress of all peoples, Solemnly proclaim our united determination to work urgently for THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A NEW INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORDER based on equity, sovereign equality, interdependence, common interest and cooperation among all States, irrespective of their economic and social systems which shall correct inequalities and redress existing injustices, make it possible to eliminate the widening gap between the developed and the developing countries and ensure steadily accelerating economic and social development and peace and justice for present and future generations, and, to that end, declare:..."

The Progress of Nations 1999
Global Development Finance 1998 Vol.1
Global Development Finance 1999
Global Development Finance 1999. Country Tables
Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2000
The State of Food Insecurity in the World 1999
The State of Food and Agriculture 1998
World Resources 1998-99: Data Tables
World Resources 1998-99: Global Trends
World Data Center for Human Interactions in the Environment

Economic Literacy
Action Literacy
Marx, K. Capital, volumen 1
Marx, K. Capital, volumen 2
Marx, K. Capital, volumen 3
Marx, K. Grundisse
Marx, K. Production, Consumption, Distribution, Exchange
Marx, K. Wage-labour and capital
Marx, K./Engels, F. Bourgeois and proletarians(1848)
Marx/Engels Library
WCC: Ecumenical Reflexions on Political Economy (1988)
UNDP: Growth as means to human development (1996)
UNDP: Ten years of Human Development (1990-1999)
S. Saumon: The IMF and the World Bank, tools of "Development Diplomacy"?
S. Saumon: From state capitalism to neo-liberalism in Algeria: the case of a failing state
S. Saumon: External domination via domestic states: the case of Francophone Africa
S. Saumon: French neo-colonialism in Francophone Africa? The role of the state in processes of foreign domination

Index and Conversion Factors
Introduction to economics
Introduction to macroeconomics
Human Development Report 2007/2008
Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world
Climate change is the defining human development challenge of the 21st Century. Failure to respond to that challenge will stall and then reverse international efforts to reduce poverty. The poorest countries and most vulnerable citizens will suffer the earliest and most damaging setbacks, even though they have contributed least to the problem. Looking to the future, no country—however wealthy or powerful—will be immune to the impact of global warming.
The Human Development Report 2007/2008 shows that climate change is not just a future scenario. Increased exposure to droughts, floods and storms is already destroying opportunity and reinforcing inequality. Meanwhile, there is now overwhelming scientific evidence that the world is moving towards the point at which irreversible ecological catastrophe becomes unavoidable. Business-as-usual climate change points in a clear direction: unprecedented reversal in human development in our lifetime, and acute risks for our children and their grandchildren.

Human Development Report 2006
Beyond scarcity: power, poverty and the global water crisis
Throughout history water has confronted humanity with some of its greatest challenges. Water is a source of life and a natural resource that sustains our environments and supports livelihoods – but it is also a source of risk and vulnerability. In the early 21st Century, prospects for human development are threatened by a deepening global water crisis. Debunking the myth that the crisis is the result of scarcity, this report argues poverty, power and inequality are at the heart of the problem.

In a world of unprecedented wealth, almost 2 million children die each year for want of a glass of clean water and adequate sanitation. Millions of women and young girls are forced to spend hours collecting and carrying water, restricting their opportunities and their choices. And water-borne infectious diseases are holding back poverty reduction and economic growth in some of the world’s poorest countries.

Human Development Report 2005
International cooperation at a crossroads: Aid, trade and security in an unequal world
This year's Human Development Report takes stock of human development, including progress towards the MDGs. Looking beyond statistics, it highlights the human costs of missed targets and broken promises. Extreme inequality between countries and within countries is identified as one of the main barriers to human development and as a powerful brake on accelerated progress towards the MDGs.

Human Development Report 2004
Cultural Liberty in Today's Diverse World
Accommodating people's growing demands for their inclusion in society, for respect of their ethnicity, religion, and language, takes more than democracy and equitable growth. Also needed are multicultural policies that recognize differences, champion diversity and promote cultural freedoms, so that all people can choose to speak their language, practice their religion, and participate in shaping their culture so that all people can choose to be who they are.

Human Development Report 2003
Millennium Development Goals: A compact among nations to end human poverty
The range of human development in the world is vast and uneven, with astounding progress in some areas amidst stagnation and dismal decline in others. Balance and stability in the world will require the commitment of all nations, rich and poor, and a global development compact to extend the wealth of possibilities to all people.

Human Development Report 2002
Deepening democracy in a fragmented world
This Human Development Report is first and foremost about the idea that politics is as important to successful development as economics. Sustained poverty reduction requires equitable growth-but it also requires that poor people have political power. And the best way to achieve that in a manner consistent with human development objectives is by building strong and deep forms of democratic governance at all levels of society.

Human Development Report 2001
Making new technologies work for human development
Technology networks are transforming the traditional map of development, expanding people's horizons and creating the potential to realize in a decade progress that required generations in the past.

Human Development Report 2000
Human rights and human development
Human Development Report 2000 looks at human rights as an intrinsic part of development and at development as a means to realizing human rights. It shows how human rights bring principles of accountability and social justice to the process of human development.

Human Development Report 1999
Globalization with a Human Face
Global markets, global technology, global ideas and global solidarity can enrich the lives of people everywhere. The challenge is to ensure that the benefits are shared equitably and that this increasing interdependence works for people not just for profits. This year's Report argues that globalization is not new, but that the present era of globalization, driven by competitive global markets, is outpacing the governance of markets and the repercussions on people.

Human Development Report 1998
Consumption for Human Development
The high levels of consumption and production in the world today, the power and potential of technology and information, present great opportunities. After a century of vast material expansion, will leaders and people have the vision to seek and achieve more equitable and more human advance in the 21st century.

Human Development Report 1997
Human Development to Eradicate Poverty
Eradicating poverty everywhere is more than a moral imperative - it is a practical possibility. That is the most important message of the Human Development Report 1997. The world has the resources and the know-how to create a poverty-free world in less than a generation.

Human Development Report 1996
Economic growth and human development
The Report argues that economic growth, if not properly managed, can be jobless, voiceless, ruthless, rootless and futureless, and thus detrimental to human development. The quality of growth is therefore as important as its quantity for poverty reduction, human development and sustainability.

Human Development Report 1995
Gender and human development
The report analyses the progress made in reducing gender disparities in the past few decades and highlights the wide and persistent gap between women's expanding capabilities and limited opportunities. Two new measures are introduced for ranking countries on a global scale by their performance in gender equality and there follows an analysis of the under-valuation and non-recognition of the work of women. In conclusion, the report offers a five-point strategy for equalizing gender opportunities in the decade ahead

Human Development Report 1994
New dimensions of human security
The report introduces a new concept of human security which equates security with people rather than territories, with development rather than arms. It examines both the national and the global concerns of human security.

Human Development Report 1993
People's Participation
The Report examines how and to what extent people participate in the events and processes that shape their lives. It looks at three major means of peoples' participation: people-friendly markets, decentralised governance and community organisations, especially non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and suggests concrete policy measures to address the growing problems of increasing unemployment.

Human Development Report 1992
Global Dimensions of Human Development
The richest 20% of the population now receives 150 times the income of the poorest 20%. The Report suggests a two-pronged strategy to break away from this situation. First, making massive investments in their people and strengthening national technological capacity can enable some developing countries to acquire a strong competitive edge in international markets (witness the East Asian industrializing tigers). Second, there should be basic international reforms, including restructuring the Bretton Woods institutions and setting up a Development Security Council within the United Nations.

Human Development Report 1991
Financing Human Development
Lack of political commitment rather than financial resources is often the real cause of human development. This is the main conclusion of Human Development Report 1991 - the second in a series of annual reports on the subject.

Human Development Report 1990
Concept and Measurement of human development
The Report addresses, as its main issue , the question of how economic growth translates - or fails to translate - into human development. The focus is on people and on how development enlarges their choices. The Report discusses the meaning and measurement of human development, proposing a new composite index. However, its overall orientation is practical and pragmatic.
Castellano - Français
Editor: Róbinson Rojas Sandford

On Development
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Finance and Development
A quarterly magazine of the IMF
Archive of F&D

On Development Economics
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The Need to Rethink Development Economics
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Basic knowledge on economics

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- Complete list of development themes
Róbinson Rojas on:
Sustainable development in a globalized economy? The odds. 1999
Sustainable development in a globalized economy. 1997
Making sense of development studies
Notes on the philosophy of the capitalist system
Notes on economics: assuming scarcity
Notes on economics: about obscenities, poverty and inequality
Notes on structural adjustment programmes
Agenda 21 revisited (notes)
15 years of monetarism in Latin America: time to scream
Latin America: a failed industrial revolution
Latin America: the making of a fractured society
Latin America: a dependent mode of production

Puro Chile la memoria del pueblo
Proyecto para el Primer Siglo Popular

Director: Róbinson Rojas Sandford
Banco Mundial:
Perspectivas para la Economía Mundial 2005
Informes Control Ciudadano:
2004: Miedos y miserias. Obstáculos a la seguridad humana
2003: Los pobres y el mercado
2002: El impacto social de la globalización en el mundo
2001: La distribución de la riqueza
2000: Políticas nacionales contra la pobreza
1999: La globalización no está beneficiando a quienes más la necesitan
1998: La equidad
1997: La pobreza
1996: La pobreza
Otras publicaciones
Revista internacional de gobernabilidad para el desarrollo humano:

Gobernabilidad y Desarrollo Humano en América Latina
Joan Prats
El Consenso de Washington ha muerto ¿viva qué?::Atrevámonos. Hagamos política

Mila Gascó
Actores indeseables en el escenario global

Oscar del Álamo y Sergi Barbens
Hacia nuevas democracias: los desafíos de los nuevos actores

Ivonne Cruz
¿Por qué hemos tardado tanto?::Vinculando la diversidad cultural y desarrollo humano; apuntes sobre el Informe de Desarrollo Humano 2004 (PNUD)

El mirador:
Riesgos de las políticas imperiales
Pere Torres

Naciones Unidas:
Conferencia Internacional sobre la financiación para el desarrollo (Monterrey, Mexico, 2002)

Instituto del Tercer Mundo
Naciones Unidas: Desarrollo Económico y Social
Cumbre Mundial sobre el desarrollo sostenible

Centro Internacional de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo
Róbonson Rojas:
La fábula de la cruz y el martillo

Red del Tercer Mundo:
Tercer Mundo Económico
Revista del Sur
Resurgence en español

M. Brito: "Buen gobierno" local y calidad de democracia (2002)

FMI: Finanzas & Desarrollo

Septiembre 2003
Nuevo diseño de las reformas

Más allá del Consenso de Washington
Jeremy Clift
En 1989, el economista John Williamson acuñó la expresión Consenso de Washington, refiriéndose a un conjunto de reformas que, en opinión de muchos economistas y encargados de formular políticas, América Latina tendría que adoptar para recuperarse económicamente de la crisis de la deuda de los años ochenta. No pasó mucho tiempo para que esas reformas fuesen consideradas un modelo para otras regiones en desarrollo. Pero los resultados no estuvieron a la altura de las expectativas y actualmente se renovó el debate sobre los planes de reforma planteados en el Consenso. (archivo pdf 80 kb)

No hay consenso en el significado
John Williamson
El autor de la expresión Consenso de Washington explica cómo llegó al plan de reforma de 10 puntos que presenta. Añade que la expresión ha adquirido significados tan distintos que es hora de abandonarla, y describe cuáles deberían ser los planes actuales en materia de política económica ante los decepcionantes resultados de las reformas del decenio de 1990.
(archivo 145 pdf kb)

América Latina: La fatiga de la reforma
Guillermo Ortiz
El Gobernador del Banco de México describe los resultados desalentadores de las reformas de "primera generación" del Consenso de Washington y subraya la importancia de las reformas de "segunda generación" para crear el marco institucional adecuado.
(archivo pdf 161 kb)

África: ¿Cuál es la senda correcta?
Trevor A. Manuel
El Ministro de Hacienda de Sudáfrica señala que algunas de las reformas contempladas en el Consenso de Washington no se aplicaban a África de la misma manera que a América Latina, y que el Consenso hizo caso omiso de tres de los problemas principales africanos: la economía dual, la falta de capital social y la debilidad estatal.
(archivo pdf 150 kb)

Otros temas 

Opciones de régimen monetario para América Latina
Andrew Berg, Eduardo Borensztein y Paolo Mauro
Una de las preguntas que perennemente se formulan muchos gobiernos, sobre todo en América Latina, es qué tipo de régimen cambiario y monetario deberá escogerse para el país. ¿Deberá la región adoptar una moneda común, o es mejor un régimen de tipos de cambio flotantes? (archivo pdf 147 kb)


Montando al tigre
Jorge Iván Canales-Kriljenko, Roberto Guimarães, Shogo Ishii y Cem Karacadag
La intervención en los mercados cambiarios es una importante herramienta para los bancos centrales. En los países en desarrollo con regímenes de tipos de cambio flexibles, el banco central interviene para corregir desajustes o estabilizar el tipo de cambio, calmar mercados desordenados, acumular reservas extranjeras o suministrar divisas al mercado. El FMI está tratando de identificar las mejores prácticas en este ámbito.
(archivo pdf 135 kb)

Los centros financieros extraterritoriales
Salim M. Darbar, R. Barry Johnston y Mary G. Zephirin
Estos centros financieros, pese a que plantean un riesgo potencial para otros sistemas financieros, no están sujetos a las mismas normas regulatorias y supervisorias que los que están ubicados en el territorio nacional. El FMI diseñó un programa en el que están participando muchos centros extraterritoriales, mediante el cual proporciona cada vez más información sobre sus operaciones y los ayuda a fortalecer sus sistemas de supervisión. (archivo pdf 131 kb)

¿Quién pagará? Peter S. Heller
Queda cada vez menos tiempo para resolver una serie de dificultades fiscales de larga data debidas, entre otras cosas, al envejecimiento de la población, el cambio climático, la creciente interconexión de la economía mundial, cuestiones de seguridad y los cambios tecnológicos.
(archivo pdf 153 kb)

Hay que prepararse
Paul K. Freeman, Michael Keen y Muthukumara Mani
Los países pobres son los más afectados por los desastres naturales, que se han vuelto más frecuentes y destructores. ¿Qué medidas físicas y financieras pueden tomar para protegerse ante un desastre natural? (archivo pdf 164 kb)

Por el buen camino
James Boughton y Zia Qureshi
El Banco Mundial, el FMI y organismos asociados elaboraron un marco para dar seguimiento al avance hacia los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio.
(archivo pdf 101 kb)

Servicios que ayuden a los pobres
Shantayanan Devarajan y Ritva Reinikka
Para escapar de la pobreza, los pobres de los países en desarrollo necesitan más acceso y control de los servicios esenciales como la atención médica, la educación, el agua limpia y el saneamiento. (archivo pdf 123 kb)


Poniendo a prueba la política económica
Asimina Caminis entrevista a Esther Duflo, del MIT, brillante economista del desarrollo cuya investigación podría modificar las estrategias de desarrollo.
(archivo pdf 135 kb)

Vuelta a lo esencial


Prakash Loungani
¿Cuáles de las tres medidas de desigualdad del ingreso —comparación entre países, dentro del mismo país o entre personas a nivel mundial— es la mejor?
(archivo pdf 103 kb)

Bajo la lupa

Desastres naturales

Estadísticas sobre la frecuencia y el poder de destrucción crecientes de los desastres naturales. (archivo pdf 110 kb)

Panorama regional

Oriente Medio y Norte de África
Estadísticas del crecimiento, el comercio, el desempleo y el presupuesto público; indicadores sociales, e índice de calidad institucional. (archivo pdf 213 kb)

Hablando claro

¿Qué es mejor: Alentar o alertar?
Kenneth S. Rogoff
El FMI debe manifestarse con mayor claridad y franqueza cuando cree que un país podría terminar en un grave problema. (archivo pdf 103 kb)


Puro Chile la mémoire du peuple
Projet pour le Premier Siècle Populaire

Editeur: Róbinson Rojas Sandford

La Banque Mondiale:
Perspectives pour l'Economie Mondiale 2005
Nations Unies:
Conférence international sur le Financement du Développement (Monterrey, México, 2002)

Nations Unies: Développement économique et social
Sommet mondial sur le développement durable

Finances & Développement

United Nations Development Programme
Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo
Programmme des Nations Unies pour le développement

country by country - país por país - pays par pays

Data1 Datos1 Données1

Data2 Datos2 Données2