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On Planning for Development:  decentralization and privatization                 On elites
Decentralisation and Local Governance: benefits and limits

But does decentralisation always work? And which are the constraints of decentralisation? For the process of decentralisation to be complete and for it to be successful, there are certain preconditions which may not exist in a country at a given time.
According to the UNDP Human Development Report (2003), these prerequisites include:
1.- Effective state capacity;
2.- Empowered, committed and competent local authorities; and
3.- Engaged, informed and organised citizens and civil society.

Decentralisation requires co-ordination between levels of government and more regulation -not less- to ensure basic transparency, accountability and representation. The state also has to raise adequate fiscal resources to support decentralisation. For the above to be achieved, effective state capacity is necessary. Furthermore, to ensure that the decentralisation effort is not hijacked by the local elites, and there is broad based participation, both a strong state and a mobilised civil society are required.
Corruption and Decentralization of Infrastructure Delivery in Developing Countries
Pranab Bardhan and Dilip Mookherjee - June 2001

Corruption and targeting failures in the delivery of public services in developing countries has frequently been argued to result from absence of controls on the behavior of central bureaucrats delegated authority over service delivery. This has motivated recent initiatives towards decentralization of service procurement and delivery to elected local governments expected to be more accountable to user interests. However if local democracy is prone to capture by local elites, decentralization can also be subject to diversion and targeting failures. This paper presents a simple analytical framework to evaluate the resulting trade-off, and predict the effects of decentralization on volume and allocation of service delivery under different financing mechanisms.

United Nations Development Programme - UNDP - 2003
Decentralised Governance for Development: A Combined Practice Note on Decentralisation, Local Governance and Urban/Rural Development

Decentralised Governance, carefully planned, effectively implemented and appropriately managed, can lead to significant improvement in the welfare of people at the local level, the cumulative effect of which can lead to enhanced human development.  Decentralised governance is not a panacea or a quick fix. The key to human development-friendly decentralised governance is to ensure that the voices and concerns of the poor, especially women, help guide its design, implementation and monitoring.
Decentralised governance for development (DGD) encompasses decentralisation, local governance, and urban/rural development – three areas that may have distinct delineations and yet share attributes that call for greater conceptual and operational synergy.
DGD is a key area of democratic governance which in turn is crucial to attaining human development and the MDGs. 
For development and governance to be fully responsive and representational, people and institutions must be empowered at every level of society – national, provincial, district, city, town and village. From UNDP’s perspective, DGD comprises empowering of sub-national levels of society to ensure that local people participate in, and benefit from, their own governance institutions and development services. Institutions of decentralisation, local governance and urban/rural development must bring policy formulation, service delivery and resource management within the purview of the people. These institutions should enable people, especially the poor and the marginalized, to exercise their choices for human development.

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific - UNESCAP - 2000
Socio-Economic Measures to Alleviate Poverty in Rural and Urban Areas

"Rural poverty alleviation through economic and social development was high on the state agenda in almost all countries of the Asian and Pacific region during the second half of the twentieth century. To achieve that goal, several development models were experimented with. These ranged from state-driven import substitution to market-driven export promotion models, from agriculture focused to infrastructure focused models and from the trickle-down approach to directly focused programmes. Several other policies, such as effective land reform, development of irrigation and drainage systems, subsidized inputs and credit facilities, human resources development and primary education and health care services were also pursued to achieve economic and social development. As a result, the incidence of poverty declined during the 1980s and 1990s, but with sharp variations across the region."

United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF) - 2003
Empowering the Poor. Local Governance for Poverty Reduction

By Angelo Bonfiglioli - UNCDF Senior Technical Advisor
In order to better meet its own mandate to reduce poverty, the United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF) has, since 1995, come through intense and far-reaching changes. Today, it is specialized in two areas: support to decentralized public investments (through local governance) and support to small-scale private investments (through microfinance). The focus on these two areas allows UNCDF to ensure the best possible impact on poverty reduction and on building capacity of national and local stakeholders.
In local governance, UNCDF investments are meant to foster a people-centred approach, promote good governance at the national and local levels, reinforce human and institutional capacities, reduce vulnerability, and protect the environment. UNCDF activities are also geared to mobilize additional financial resources. In supporting decentralized public investments, UNCDF pursues the global objective of poverty reduction.
The main concern is to ensure better access of the poor to essential infrastructure and socio-economic services in the sectors of health and education, road transport, markets, water supply and the management of natural resources. In addition, UNCDF recognizes the need to promote participation at the local level, in order to allow local populations to identify solutions that address the local context. It is necessary to ensure the effective participation of women in the decision- making processes, decisions that will affect their daily lives and the future of their children and families. It is also important to ensure the participation of civil society as a whole and to build the capacities of local governments and local officials, so that public investments are managed in the common interest

Fifth Global Forum on Reinventing Government (Interactive Workshop :Decentralised Governance)- 2003
Decentralization and Poverty Reduction: Does it Work?

In a forum, such as this, one is permitted, or indeed encouraged, to ask questions for stimulating dialogue. For example, what is decentralisation and how exactly does it fit into the sphere of good governance ? Further, if there are well known prerequisites for good governance, are there equally prerequisites for decentralisation? If decentralisation is embraced so clearly both by national governments, and donors, why is progress, especially in Africa, limping and fragile? Finally, and more crucially, does decentralisation affect poverty reduction, and if this is the case what more can be done to shore up decentralisation in developing countries? It would seem to us that progress in answering these questions would not only help to bring clarity to the role of decentralisation, within the sphere of governance, but would enable us to see where the links are between decentralisation and poverty reduction – a core element in the Millennium Development Goals, MDGs. Hence, as this is work in progress, it is based largely on field experience, on secondary sources, and on the discussions and findings from two recent workshops on the theme that UN-DESA was involved, than on systematic academic research.

M. Dulic, August 24, 2004
Is decentralisation vital for poverty reduction?         search here
In a series of development paradigms, decentralization that carries the premises of democracy is one of the latest development strategies to reduce poverty. According to the glossary (KIT Information and Library Services, ILS, 2002), "decentralization is the gradual process of transforming power and resources from central government to the lower level of government, such as the regions, provinces, districts and municipalities." Although this definition does not explain how decentralization can reduce poverty, empirical evidence indicates that decentralization provides better accountability and responsiveness. When a society is decentralized, social capital has a better chance to sustain itself and participation at different local levels gives a community a role of a direct client and controller over the society's own needs (Katsiaouni, 2003).


The social effects of decentralisation and privatisation:
Chile - A. M. Arteaga - 2003
The brutal rationale of privatisation

«Beyond euphemisms, privatisation of health, social security and education operated by neo-liberals has imposed a brutal rationale: depending on the amount of money you have, you will have so much health care, quality of education for your children and pension upon retirement. If you are privileged, you will have access to privileged services. If you are poor, you will have to make do with what the public system is able to give you.»

Mexico - A. Sandoval Terán - 2003
Now the responsibility lies with the individuals

Stabilisation and structural adjustment programmes adopted following the foreign debt crisis in 1982 have included the total or partial privatisation of many state companies and activities in various sectors: industrial, financial, agriculture and stock-raising, mining, infrastructure, communications, petro-chemical and even social security. Along with cutbacks in social expenditure associated with trends to privatise public and basic services, the «novelty» lies with the transfer of State responsibility to private companies.

Chile - A. M. Arteaga-C. Ochsenius.-2004
Low-intensity democracy

Despite its economic stability and the substantial improvements that the Government has achieved in the rates of poverty and education, 52% of Chileans “feel they are losing out, and 74% have negative feelings about the country’s economic system”. This is no paradox, since according to the World Bank, Chile is among the 15 countries with the worst income distribution in the world. Things are not much better in politics, where the principle of “one person, one vote” is not viable in the “protected democracy” inherited from the military dictatorship.

Mexico A. Sandoval Terán - 2004
Rights and human security to break the vicious circle

Neo-liberal economic policies generate multiple vicious circles of human insecurity. One of these circles (involving indiscriminate trade liberalisation, the crisis in rural areas and migration) illustrates the extent to which economic, social, cultural and environmental rights are being violated. In December 2003, following recommendations made in the Diagnosis of the Human Rights Situation in Mexico, President Vicente Fox made a commitment to set up a National Human Rights Programme. It is essential that the State addresses the question of rights by taking a holistic approach that recognises their interdependence, in order to start creating “virtuous” circles of human security.

Chile- C. Pey, D. Donoso and L. Arellano - 2002
Growth without equity

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Chile shows paradoxical characteristics. While Chile is being touted as a champion of economic liberalisation, the country is finding that the free trade measures adopted are not reactivating its economy or reducing the persistent and high unemployment rate and the serious and prevailing inequality. The private sector is not receptive to monetary and tax incentives, and the old government is financing thousands of emergency jobs, an intervention that reminds us of the hardest times of the 1980s.

Mexico - A. Sandoval Terán - 2002
Priorities of the Vicente Fox government

To generate more resources for social development, Mexican President Vincente Fox promoted a regressive tax reform during 2001. The real objective was to achieve, at any price, a lower level of public debt, as demanded by the international financing agencies. While social development is not a priority, payment and redemption of public debt are ensured.

Chile - L. Arellano - D. Donoso - C. Pey - 2001
Stagnant and disenchanted

In 2000, the countries of the region were strongly affected by a variety of problems: the political crisis in Peru; sharp social unrest in Bolivia, which literally paralyzed the country; and the strong financial, political, ethical and social crisis affecting Argentina. In this company, Chile appears to be an exception, demonstrating a “healthy economy” and political stability.

Mexico - R. Aguilera - A. Sandoval Terán - 2001
Among the most unequal

At the 1995 Social Summit in Copenhagen, countries committed themselves to policies and programs to promote and protect equal opportunity and overcome disparities in wealth, both within and among nations. The fourth commitment specifically addresses promotion of social integration based on equality and respect for human dignity. Despite some progress, “Mexico is among the 15 countries with the worst concentration of income in the world.”2

Chile - D. Donoso - M. Hidalgo - O. Torres - 2000
Precarious progress

The weight and presence of transnational capital in the Chilean economy has kept growing, however, and the decisions and interests of those who control this capital are becoming more powerful in determining not only the economic, but also the social, political and cultural structure and dynamics of Chile.

Mexico - A. Sandoval Terán - 2000
Much ado about nothing

Guerrero and Oaxaca, are only some of the indicators that little progress has been made toward fulfilling commitments made at Copenhagen and Beijing.
During the administration of President Ernesto Zedillo, the government has taken various legislative, economic policy and social measures and has plans and programmes to solve the problems of social development. These measures have not achieved their objectives or done so insufficiently; some have even resulted in greater impoverishment of the population.

Chile - X. Valdés - 1998
Inequality: the latest data

Chile has followed this tendency. It has maintained annual growth rates of higher than 7%. The income share of the poorest 40% of households remained the same, while the richest 10% of households increased their share of the total income from 1990 to 1994, according to ECLAC figures. This situation was unchanged in 1996.
Towards the end of 1996, MIDEPLAN carried out the CASEN survey for the sixth time. This survey measures the development of income distribution, poverty and mployment in the country from 1987 onwards. The latest results of this survey show the following:...

Mexico = S. Cruickshank - M. Purcell - 1998
More poor than 15 years ago

For 69 years Mexico has been governed by a single party, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). Although there have been opposition parties (with a growing presence since the mid–eighties), the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government have been controlled by the PRI throughout this period.
In 1996, after a series of negotiations among the country’s principal political parties, an electoral reform law was passed by the PRI without the support of the opposition parties. The latter insisted on more far–reaching reforms in areas that the PRI was not willing to cede. An important limitation of the reform was its strict focus on «leveling the playing field» among political parties only, leaving organised civil society out of consideration. Concrete proposals for building a more accessible democracy for all – including legal recognition of plebiscites and referendums, for example – were disregarded. Thus, while advances were made in terms of greater equity among political parties, there is still a long way to go in terms of improving equal access to democracy among civil society at large.

Chile - X. Valdés - T. Valdés - J. Bengoa - 1997
Economic growth and poverty

Economic growth has once again fallen into income concentration, which, even though not reversed, had come to a halt in the 1990–1992 period, when there were no substantial variations in the sharing–out of wealth between the different social sectors. The homes of the richest fifth of the population took nearly a whole point more of the total wealth in 1994 compared with 1992, while the poorest homes became poorer by nearly the same amount.

Mexico - C. Casabuenas - C. Heredia - M. Purcell - 1997
Diagnosis of poverty and inequality

During 1996 the social situation continued to deteriorate. Although macroeconomic indicators evolved more favourably than in disastrous 1995, most people’s standard of living worsened. Since 1982, when structural adjustment policies were introduced, mean income growth per capita has been less than the average population growth. The economic model and the growing external debt turned Mexico into a country of debtors with scant possibilities for productive work and for generating the income to cover costs. Employment is falling and the cost of living is increasing. In a recent survey, when people were asked «For you, economically, 1996 has been», 50% of individuals surveyed answered «worse than 1995», 26% «the same as 1995», and only 24% «better than 1995».

June, 2004
Reforming Infrastructure: Privatization, Regulation, and Competition

Credible Regulation Vital For Infrastructure Reform To Reduce Poverty, Says World Bank

Documents and Reports from the World Bank archives:
From The World Bank
Venezuela - Public Sector Legislative and Administrative Modernization Project Vol. 1 of 1 (2004)

The ratings for the project were as follows: the outcome was unsatisfactory, the sustainability was unlikely, the institutional development impact was negligible, and the Bank and borrower performance were both unsatisfactory. The lessons learned indicate that the Bank should be more sensitive to the political changes taking place in a country, in order to analyze the implications, moreover when the Project has not been approved, signed or implementation has not begun. When a project restructuring is needed, the Bank should agree with the Government on a time-bound action plan, with specific benchmarks and milestones, in order to avoid never-ending discussions. Whenever changes occur at the level of a minister or vice minister of the executing agency, the task team should take the initiative to approach the new authorities, clarify any doubts that they could have about the Project, and make special efforts to involve and commit them to the process. Project approval or signing around the time of a Presidential election or inauguration may be highly counterproductive even for the best technically designed operation. While the continuity of task manager may assist in the generation of sound technical proposals at the design stage, the frequent changes at the time of supervision may erode the quality of the constant dialogue and follow up required for Project implementation to proceed smoothly. Participation and consultation are not exhausted during the preparation. The Bank should coordinate closely its decision-making process with multilateral or bilateral partners, in order to take joint decisions at the project design or implementation stages.

From The World Bank
Brazil - Country assistance evaluation Vol. 1 of 1 (2004)

This Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) reviews key aspects of the Bank's program in Brazil, based on the central objective of the Bank's assistance to Brazil in the 1990s and early 2000: poverty alleviation. The strategy became more selective, focusing on the poor Northeast and on activities expected to address directly the roots of poverty. The growth element of the strategy supported the Government 's decentralization, and privatization of infrastructure through technical assistance, in regulation and selective lending, while assistance to the environment expanded significantly in the 1990s focused on green issues. At the end of the 1990s, the Bank shifted to adjustment lending to assist the Government in its stabilization and reform efforts. The Bank's assistance program to Brazil produced a sufficient mass of positive outcomes to be rated as satisfactory. The program contributed only modestly to the decline in income poverty rates - the gains resulted primarily from eliminating high inflation - and, the program contributed only indirectly, by helping the Government sustain stabilization at the end of the decade. However, the program contributed importantly to the impressive improvement in social indicators, and to the expanded access of the rural, and urban poor to basic infrastructure, and, the education gains will likely translate into reduced poverty and inequality. Nevertheless, in going forward, these gains will need to be enhanced for Brazil to achieve further reductions in poverty and inequality. Moreover, policies must maintain fiscal discipline to ensure access to external finance, keep inflation low, and prevent an erosion of the gains of the 1990s, including completing tax, social security, and financial sector reforms considered critical.

From The World Bank
International political risk management : the brave new world Vol. 1 of 1 (2004)

Part One provides a first look from the "supply side" at the reaction of the political risk insurance market to September 11, 2001, the Argentine economic crisis, and other recent corporate upheavals. This section starts off with the public provider's perspective, provided by Vivian Brown, Chief Executive of the U.K.'s Export Credits Guarantee Department (ECGD) and President of the Berne Union.
Part Two explores the reactions of investors and lenders to the recent upheavals in the global economy. It pays particular attention to the problems confronting large infrastructure projects, in which purchase agreements are guaranteed by the host country, and revenues are denominated in local currency. It examines how political risk insurance can help lenders to return to financing infrastructure development in emerging markets, and asks to what extent investors and lenders need new products or new kinds of coverage to deal with currency crises.
Part Three brings together Felton "Mac" Johnston, President, FMJ International Risk; Charles Berry, Chairman, Berry, Palmer & Lyle Limited; and Witold Henisz and Bennet Zelner, Assistant Professors at Wharton and Georgetown University respectively. Additional commentary is provided by David Bailey, Vice President, Sovereign Risk Insurance Ltd. and Edith Quintrell, Manager, Insurance, at the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, who provide perspectives on how the political risk insurance industry might evolve to meet the needs of insurers and reinsurers, on the one hand, and investors and lenders, on the other.

From The World Bank
Subnational capital markets in developing countries : from theory to practice
Vol. 1 of 1 (2004)
Editors: Mila Freire and John Petersen with Marcela Huertas and Miguel Valadez

In developing countries the twin tasks of building more dispersed and democratic governments and opening economies to freer markets and greater private ownership have been attempted in tandem-and have proved a difficult undertaking. A reduction in barriers to the movement of capital and goods has been a nearly universal objective. However, implementation of the required reforms has meant tough competition for domestic industries and increasing constraints on the fiscal and monetary policies of national governments. In the face of economic slowdowns and unstable financial markets, many emerging and developing economies have found privatization and the opening up of their economies to be painful and unpopular. The steep price and uncertain benefits of joining global markets have their critics. Subnational governments, for their part, are being required to do more things, to do them more efficiently, and to be more self-reliant in raising resources. At the same time devolution and hard-pressed budgets have constrained the ability of central governments to provide for the needs of subnational governments. After years of neglect and with expectations rising, the needs for infrastructure are particularly daunting. The enormous funding requirements cannot be met either practically or equitably without long-term investment. International lending and grant-giving institutions, another traditional source of funds, are also limited in their resources and restricted by rules and customary practice to dealing only through sovereign governments.

Turkey - Greater prosperity with social justice policy notes Vol. 1 of 1 (2003)
Turkey - Greater prosperity with social justice policy notes Vol. 1 of 1 (Turkish)(2003)
Ethiopia - Economic Rehabilitation Support Credit Project Vol. 1 of 1 (2003)
Mozambique - Public expenditure review : Phase 2 - sectoral expenditures Vol. 1 of 1 (2003)
Pakistan - Structural Adjustment Credit for the Government of Sindh Province Vol. 1 of 1 (2003)
Slovak Republic - Joining the EU : a development policy review Vol. 1 of 1 (2003)
Indonesia - Suralaya Thermal Power Project and Sumatera and Kalimantan Power Project Vol. 1 (2003)
Rural extension services Vol. 1 (2003)
Benin - Under the Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative (Completion Point Document) Vol. 1 (2003)
The effects of a fee-waiver program on health care utilization among the poor : evidence from Armenia Vol. 1 (2003)
Niger - Country assistance strategy Vol. 1 (2003)
Slovak Republic - Development policy review Vol. 1 of 2 / Summary report (2002)
Slovak Republic - Development policy review Vol. 2 of 2 / Main report (2002)
Romania - Building institutions for public expenditure management : reforms, efficiency and equity - a Public Expenditure and Institutions Review Vol. 1 (2002)
Vietnam - Agricultural Rehabilitation Project Vol. 1 (2022)
Assistance to transition economies : were there alternatives ? Vol. 1 of 1 (2002)
Pakistan - Sindh Structural Adjustment Credit Project Vol. 1 (2002)
Guinea - Decentralized Rural Electrification Project Vol. 1 (2002)
Congo, Republic of - Transparency and Governance Capacity Building Project Vol. 1 (2002)
Slovak Republic - Development policy review Vol. 2 of 2 / Main report (Slovak)(2002)
Indonesia - Development policy review : the imperative for reform Vol. 1 (2001)
Breaking up the collective farm : welfare outcomes of Vietnam ' s massive land privatization Vol. 1 (2001)
Venezuela - Public Sector Legislative and Administrative Modernization Project Vol. 1 (2001)
The development of property taxation in economies in transition - case studies from Central and Eastern Europe Vol. 1 (2001)
Transition 12 (3) Vol. 1 (2001)
Technical efficiency gains from port reform : the potential for yardstick competition in Mexico Vol. 1 (2001)
Transition 12 (1) Vol. 1 (2001)
Integration of transport and trade facilitation : selected regional case studies Vol. 1 (2001)
Transition 11 (6) Vol. 1 (2001)
From The World Bank
Report on the meeting of the Latin American and Caribbean Forum on Poverty, Inequality, and Vulnerability : Buenos Aires, October 19-20, 1998 Vol. 1 (2000)

This report summarizes the discussions from the "Forum on Poverty, Inequality, and Vulnerability," organized in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on October 19-20, 1998, by the World Bank's Latin America and the Caribbean Region (LAC), the World Bank Institute, and the team working on the Bank's "World Development Report on Poverty and Development." The forum emphasized that inequality is the central factor of the poverty problem in Latin America, and upheld the need to persevere against it. Other presentations focused on the different policy options available to improve poor people's access to basic services; discussed experience gained in the region while applying four options--decentralization, privatization, participation, and public-private partnerships; and proposed an analytic framework. Also stressed was the importance of understanding how labor markets function and the labor market crisis in the 1990s. Employment was identified as a principal poverty-fighting mechanism; education and training was the most efficient path to stable employment. The World Bank Report on Poverty and Development 2000/1 was also unveiled. Session leaders underscored the report's innovative methodology, preparation, and participation (the drafting team was multidisciplinary, with extensive female participation and non-Bank staff). Because poverty levels continue to be unacceptable, other actions, such as modifying income determinants, and instituting income-transfer policies must occur.

Sri Lanka - Recapturing missed opportunities Vol. 1 (2000)
Indonesia - Public spending in a time of change Vol. 1 (2000)
The political economy of infrastructure investments in Nigeria Vol. 1 of 1 / The political economy of infrastructure investments in Nigeria (2000)
Indonesia - Public spending in a time of change Vol. 1 (2000)
Guatemala - Expenditure reform in a post-conflict country Vol. 1 (2000)
India - Policies to reduce poverty and accelerate sustainable development Vol. 1 (2000)
India : reducing poverty, accelerating development Vol. 1 (2000)
Tanzania - Public Sector Reform Program Project Vol. 1 (1999)
Privatization and regulation of the seaport industry Vol. 1 (1999)
Madagascar - An agenda for growth and poverty reduction Vol. 1 (1999)
The Russian city in transition - the first six years in ten Volga capitals Vol. 1 (1999)
Financing higher education in Africa : Makerere, the quiet revolution Vol. 1 (1999)
Lithuania - Country assistance strategy Vol. 1 (1999)
Senegal - Agricultural Services and Producer Organizations Project Vol. 1 (1999)
Light and lightning at the end of the public tunnel : reform of the electricity sector in the Southern Cone Vol. 1 (1999)
Reforming Bolivia ' s power sector Vol. 1 of 1 / La reforma del sector electrico de Bolivia (1999)
Reforming Bolivia ' s power sector Vol. 1 of 1 / Reforme du secteur de l ' electricite en Bolivie (1999)
Reforming Bolivia ' s power sector Vol. 1 (1999)
Southern African agribusiness : gaining through regional collaboration Vol. 1 (1999)
Madagascar - An agenda for growth and poverty reduction : country economic memorandum Vol. 1 (1998)
The transport sector in Mexico : an evaluation Vol. 1 (1998)
Reforming the Russian electricity sector Vol. 1 (1998)
Zimbabwe - Agricultural Services and Management Project (ASMP) Vol. 1 (1998)
Venezuela - Public Sector Modernization and Decentralization Project Vol. 1 (1998)
Concessions for infrastructure : a guide to their design and award Vol. 1 (1998)
From The World Bank
The case-by-case approach to privatization : techniques and examples Vol. 1 (1998)

Most privatization programs outside the transition economies take a case-by-case approach. Governments move control of state enterprises to the private sector, usually one at a time, using domestic and international public offerings, trade (third-party) sales, or a combination of the two (a mixed sale). The case-by-case approach allows government to pay close attention to the policy issues surrounding privatization. It also allows structure privatizations to bring in needed foreign capital, knowledge, and market connections; and maximizes the financial returns from privatization. Drawing on global experience, this paper provides practical guidance to government officials charged with managing case-by-case privatization programs. It identifies the five key steps in case-by-case privatization, describes sale options and the processes for carrying them out, and examines special conditions, such as golden shares. It then outlines how governments should undertake case-by-case privatization, identifying basic principles and common challenges, describing various methods for valuing state enterprises, and explaining the role of financial advisers and sales agents in valuing privatization candidates and developing options for sale.

Zimbabwe - Agricultural Services and Management Project Vol. 1 (1998)
1995 and 1997 questionnaires - Nicaragua school autonomy reform Vol. 1 (1998)
India - Haryana Power Sector Restructuring Project Vol. 1 (1997)
Private ownership and corporate performance : some lessons from transition economies Vol. 1 (1997)
Albania - Enterprise and Financial Sector Adjustment Credit Vol. 1 (1997)
Jamaica - Public Sector Modernization Project Vol. 1 (1997)
Venezuela - Public Sector Modernization and Decentralization (PSMoD) Vol. 1 (1997)
Laos - Priorities for rural infrastructure development Vol. 1 (1997)
A framework for reforming urban land policies in developing countries Vol. 1 (1996)
Jamaica - Public Sector Modernization Project Vol. 1 (1996)
Bulgaria - Private sector assessment Vol. 1 (1996)
Lending for electric power in Sub-Saharan Africa Vol. 1 (1996)
Russian Federation - Housing reform and privatization : strategy and transition issues Vol. 1 (1995)
Ownership and financing of infrastructure : historical perspective Vol. 1 (1995)
Decentralization of the socialist state : intergovernmental finance in transition economies Vol. 1 (1995)
Transition 6(3) Vol. 1 (1995)
Fiscal decentralization and intergovernmental finances in the Republic of Albania Vol. 1 (1994)
Central bank independence : a critical view Vol. 1 (1994)
Viet Nam - Public sector management and private sector incentives Vol. 1 (1994)
Colombia - Power Market Development Project : sector environmental assessment - Colombian electricity sector Vol. 2 (1994)
Colombia - Power Market Development Project : sector environmental assessment - Colombian electricity sector Vol. 3 (1994)
Colombia - Power Market Development Project : sector environmental assessment - Colombian electricity sector Vol. 1 (1994)
Uruguay - The private sector Vol. 1 (1994)
Making a market : mass privatization in the Czech and Slovak Republics Vol. 1 (1993)
Property tax in Anglophone Africa : issues and constraints Vol. 1 (1993)
Wage controls during the transition from central planning to a market economy Vol. 1 (1993)
Fiscal decentralization and intergovernmental relations in transition economics : toward a systematic framework of analysis Vol. 1 (1993)
From The World Bank
Public enterprise reform : the lessons of experience Vol. 1 (1991)

This book tries to systematize the lessons learned in the past two decades of public enterprise reform to correct the perceived deficiencies of state-enterprise sectors in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. It addresses the macroeconomic adjustments typically required in the effort to fashion a more open and competitive economy - liberalizing trade and ending preferential treatment for state enterprises; shifts toward market-oriented financing in the banking system; moves toward market pricing and reforming the institutional structure for setting tariffs; and establishing more competitive and evenhanded compensation and staffing policies in state enterprises. It argues that with macroeconomic reforms under way, government needs to ground its reform of state enterprises in an assessment of the purposes to be served by its state-owned sector. It describes how reforming the relationship between government and its enterprises entails striking a delicate balance between autonomy and accountability. The report examines the mechanisms used by governments in a variety of developing countries to set goals for state-owned firms and to evaluate their performance. It addresses the promise and the risks of privatization, whether through outright sales, management contracting, leasing, franchising, contracting-out, or encouraging new entrants into the private sector. It also offers an overview of the task facing governments with a failing public enterprise sector.

War on Want


The evidence shows that the poor are denied access to essential services when multinationals take over. Private companies have failed to extend services to ensure that the poorest people can access them, as well as increasing the prices of services beyond what the poorest can afford. Governments are best placed to provide public services on the scale needed to tackle poverty and ensure access and affordability for all. No wonder there are so many cases where privatisation has been deeply unpopular – witness mass protests in Bolivia, Peru, the Dominican Republic, India, South Africa and elsewhere.


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-- Dispute Settlement - Course
----- Modules

-- Investment, Technology and
-----Enterprise Development

-- Services Infrastructure for
--- Development and Trade
----- Efficiency

-- Monographs on Port
----- Management

-- Technical Cooperation
-- Discussion papers
-- G-24 Discussion papers
-- Prebisch Lectures
-- Transnational Corporations
----- Journal

-- Publications Survey 2006-

World indicators on the environment

World Energy Statistics - Time Series

Economic inequality

Other related themes:
- Aid
- Bureaucracy
- Debt
- Decentralization
- Dependency theory
- Development
- Development Economics
- Economic Policies
- Employment/Unemployment
- Foreign Direct Investment
- Gender
- Human Rights
- Human Development
- Hunger
- Inequality/social exclusion
- Informal sector
- Labour Market
- Microfinance
- Migration
- Poverty
- Privatization
- State/Civil Society/

- Sustainable Development
- Transnational Corporations
- Urbanization

- Complete list of development themes

Puro Chile la memoria del pueblo
Proyecto para el Primer Siglo Popular
Editor: Róbinson Rojas Sandford
Creemos en la paz y en la justicia
..."Creo en un mundo cuyas instituciones políticas, económicas y sociales fomenten la solidaridad,  promuevan la equidad...”
Lea texto completo
Proyecto para el Primer Siglo Popular
"...creemos que la abrumadora mayoría de la población mundial se opone fieramente a las politicas neoconservadoras, ...".
Lea texto completo


Puro Chile la mémoire du peuple
Projet pour le Premier Sičcle Populaire
Editeur: Róbinson Rojas Sandford
Je suis pour la paix et la justice
"Je suis pour un monde dont les institutions politiques, économiques et sociales nourrissent la solidarité....”
tout le texte ici
Projet pour le Premier Sičcle Populaire
"Nous ... pensons que la vaste majorité de la population mondiale est maintenant sévčrement opposée aux politiques néo-conservatrices..."
lire la declaration ici

La privatisation au Niger
Un outil de développement et de reconstruction pour le Niger
Enseignements tires de la reforme de la fonction publique en Ouganda Vol. 1 (1998)