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The political economy of development
This academic site promotes excellence in teaching and researching economics and development, and the advancing of describing, understanding, explaining and theorizing.
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Planning for Development: On capitalist economic and political terrorism,
                            the visible hand of capitalist markets and criminal minds

(From The Yale Review, VOLUME XXII (1932-1933), Summer 1933), p. 755-759. As reproduced by Panarchy

National Self-Sufficiency - by John Maynard Keynes - (1933)

..."The decadent international but individualistic capitalism, in the hands of which we found ourselves after the War, is not a success. It is not intelligent, it is not beautiful, it is not just, it is not virtuous - and it doesn't deliver the goods. In short, we dislike it and we are beginning to despise it. But when we wonder what to put in its place, we are extremely perplexed."...

Read also "John Maynard Keynes: a vision for the future or a ghost from the past?.- by Richard Ebeling - June 8,  2012

From RT - July 2013

Depleted uranium used by US forces blamed for birth defects and cancer in Iraq

The US military’s use of depleted uranium in Iraq has led to a sharp increase in Leukemia and birth defects in the city of Najaf – and panicked residents are fearing for their health. Cancer is now more common than the flu, a local doctor tells RT.
The city of Najaf saw one of the most severe military actions during the 2003 invasion. RT traveled to the area, quickly learning that every residential street in several neighborhoods has seen multiple cases of families whose children are ill, as well as families who have lost children, and families who have many relatives suffering from cancer.
Speaking on the rooftop of her house instead of her laboratory, Dr. Sundus Nsaif says the city has seen a “dramatic rise” in cancer and birth defects since the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq. Nsaif said the alternative location was chosen because there is an active push by the government not to talk about the issue, perhaps in an effort not to embarrass coalition forces.

Dutch report
'United States of Amnesia': No accountability for ‘grievous errors’ in Iraq

Ten years after the US invasion of Iraq, the humanitarian situation in the country is bleak. Critics say the hugely unpopular occupation of Iraq, and the lack of accountability for the officials responsible, has irreparably damaged America’s image.
On March 20, 2003, the United States – in defiance of the United Nations, which had weapons inspectors on the ground in Iraq – opened a military offensive against the Arab Republic on the premise that the Baathist government of Saddam Hussein was harboring weapons of mass destruction.

One decade later, the global community is aware that the intelligence claims of Iraqi WMDs were patently false at least – and a blatant fabrication at worst – but this knowledge has done nothing to erase the damage of the conflict.

From The Economist - July 7th 2012 | from the print edition

The LIBOR affair - Banksters
How Britain’s rate-fixing scandal might spread—and what to do about it

“SINCE we have not more power of knowing the future than any other men, we have made many mistakes (who has not during the past five years?), but our mistakes have been errors of judgment and not of principle.” So reflected J.P. Morgan junior in 1933, in the middle of a financial crisis. Today's bankers can draw no such comfort from their behaviour. The attempts to rig LIBOR (the London inter-bank offered rate), a benchmark interest rate, not only betray a culture of casual dishonesty; they set the stage for lawsuits and more regulation right the way round the globe. This could well be global finance's “tobacco moment”.

How much equality would you like?
From The Economist - Aug 14th 2012

"AMERICANS want to live in a much more equal country (they just don't realise it)". So says Dan Ariely, who, along with Mike Norton, found that Americans ridiculously underestimate the amount of inequality in their country. In reality, American society is staggeringly unequal: the top 20% hold 84% of the wealth, while the bottom 40% have just 0.3%. But according to Mr Ariely, Americans, whether liberal or conservative, rich or poor, prefer a wealth distribution that is more egalitarian than Sweden’s.

The golden rules of banking
They make the rules, and get the gold
From The Economist - July 14th 2012

Bankers get such generous payoffs because it is in their contracts and airtight contracts are needed to attract the best people. But is this right? The BBC just appointed a director-general on a salary that is one-third less than that of the previous incumbent. Even so, there was no shortage of qualified applicants for the post. Back to the first rule: in banking, the laws of supply and demand do not apply.

From The Globalist - August 09, 2012
From Iraq to LIBOR: Excessive Risk-Taking and Democratic Accountability
Stephan Richter

The United States and the United Kingdom, the two countries that have long dominated global affairs, are also always keen to portray themselves as the world's two oldest continuous democracies. That claim gives off the impression that the main purpose of politics in those nations is to serve the people.
The continuous slide of the United States and Britain into financialist democracies does not serve the very idea of democracy very well.
However, that reference to democracy, and hence to proper accountability structures, both personally and institutionally, increasingly looks like a mere cover-up. Criminal prosecutions, in particular, have been extremely scarce, despite the gravity and regularity of systemic malfeasance in the financial industry

From the BBC News - 16 August 2012
Libor scandal: Seven banks face US questioning

Seven banks, including HSBC and Royal Bank of Scotland, are to be questioned in the US for alleged manipulation of the Libor inter-bank lending rate.
Barclays, Citigroup, Deutsche Bank, JPMorgan and UBS have also received subpoenas from the attorneys general of New York and Connecticut.
Last month, Barclays was fined £290m by UK and US regulators for rigging Libor. US regulators said they were investigating potential involvement by other banks in the Barclays scandal.

From CNN - 26 July 2012
'Land grabs' - the new scramble for Africa
Robyn Curnow

It is being dubbed by some as the “Second Scramble for Africa” - millions of acres of land being snapped up by companies from Asia and the Middle East. The land rush was in part spurred by the food and financial crisis of 2008, when corporations, investment funds and governments began to re-focus their attention on agriculture as a profitable commodity. Massingir Agro-Industrial is a South African and Mozambican company that has been given the use of 30,000 hectares of land in Massingir, western Mozambique, by the country’s government. Backed by European investors, once feasibility studies are complete, the company will begin planting sugar cane to produce sugar - 80% of which will be exported to Europe.
Under the deal, local villagers will not be relocated. Some land will be left for the villagers but the vast majority of it will be off limits.

From Foreign Policy - 27 April 2011
How Goldman Sachs Created the Food Crisis
Don't blame American appetites, rising oil prices, or genetically modified crops for rising food prices. Wall Street's at fault for the spiraling cost of food.
Frederick Kaufman

Demand and supply certainly matter. But there's another reason why food across the world has become so expensive: Wall Street greed.
It took the brilliant minds of Goldman Sachs to realize the simple truth that nothing is more valuable than our daily bread. And where there's value, there's money to be made. In 1991, Goldman bankers, led by their prescient president Gary Cohn, came up with a new kind of investment product, a derivative that tracked 24 raw materials, from precious metals and energy to coffee, cocoa, cattle, corn, hogs, soy, and wheat. They weighted the investment value of each element, blended and commingled the parts into sums, then reduced what had been a complicated collection of real things into a mathematical formula that could be expressed as a single manifestation, to be known henceforth as the Goldman Sachs Commodity Index (GSCI).

From Foreign Policy - May/June 2011
Hungry Planet: The New Geopolitics of Food
Lester R. Brown

Welcome to FP's first-ever food issue in which we travel across this hungry planet of ours at a time when skyrocketing prices are dictating politics from the Middle East to Madagascar. The special section, which travels from the yuppies who've appropriated the miracle food of the Incas to a darkened kitchen in Baghdad where women battered by war came together to celebrate life, explores the food wars of the 21st century, debunks the conventional wisdom about hunger and poverty, shows us 10 ways we really are what we eat, and asks leading experts to predict the future of food.

From The Economist - 21 April 2012
Kim selection - The new boss of the World Bank has a tough job. The manner of his appointment has made it tougher

FOR the past decade, two big trends have been reshaping development. One is the growth of new sources of aid and loans, notably middle-income countries such as China, private capital flows and charitable organisations such as the Gates Foundation. This is undermining the dominance of Western institutions. The other is a new way of thinking about development, which focuses less on national plans and more on the rights of individuals and specific groups.

U.S. Politicians Vote Against Science
April 12, 2011
For the rulers of the world’s most powerful country, science is just a matter of opinion ...

On April 6, three members of the U.S. House of Representatives proposed this amendment to a bill under discussion:
"Congress accepts the scientific findings of the Environmental Protection Agency that climate changes is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for public health and welfare."

The amendment did not propose any action— it simply allowed members of the House to state whether or not they agree with the overwhelming scientific evidence.

The amendment was defeated 240 to 184.

Scary…                                                           From Climate and Capitalism

From John Pilger - 2007
As published by
The War on Democracy

The War on Democracy – U.S. Forigin Policy in the Latin America is John Pilger’s documentary made in 2007. He travels throughout Latin America and the United States, to investigate the relationship between the two. Recent US foreign policy towards South & Central America has been destructive, at best, and this mainstream UK tv documentary film exposes the truth behind Washington’s actions, whilst blowing apart some of the myths within the so-called War On Terror at the same time. This film uses archive footage to support its claim that democracy has been wiped out in country after country in Latin America since the 1950s, with testimonies from many of those involved and affected. Venezuelan president, Hugo Chavez, is one of those interviewed.

From John Pilger - 1992
War by other means

John Pilger examines the policy of First World banks agreeing loans with Third World countries, which are then unable to meet the cripling interest charges. An interesting documentary, that relativizes helps provided by northern hemisphere to African continent. John Pilger questions whether poor countries will ever develop while burdened with massive debts to the West. John Pilger travels to many third world countries to investigate the devastating results of loans from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF). This film shows how many wars today are not carried out at the barrel of a gun, but by the monetary policies of global banking institutions. Instead of bombs, it has been discovered that debt is a far more powerful weapon to control and maintain the power of global economic interests. It turns out that the “structural-adjustment” policies of neo-liberal economics are even more deadly than nerve gas and many other weapons of war. This documentary backs up many of the claims made by John Perkins, author of Confessions of an Economic Hit Man.

From the Institute for Policy Research & Development
Repression, Human Rights, and US Training of Military Forces from the South
By Ruth Joanna Blakeley,
Department of Politics, University of Bristol, October 2006

In order to understand whether US training of military forces from the South has resulted in the use of repression or improvements in human rights, we need to situate the training within the broader context of US foreign policy objectives and strategies.
The main aims of US foreign policy are to maintain its dominant global position and to ensure control of resources and markets in the South. These objectives are being pursued through an emerging, US led transnational state, using the instruments of legitimation at least as much as repression.
This contrasts with the Cold War, during which US foreign policy strategy towards the South emphasised repression. US training of military forces from the South during the Cold War played a key role in a US-led network of terror, through which many states in the South were connected to the US and each other by cooperation between their militaries, police and intelligence services. The training was dominated by a particular form of counterinsurgency instruction which advocated repression of groups that might potentially threaten US control of Southern economies and assets. This contributed to widespread human rights violations, particularly in Latin America.
Following the end of the Cold War, reliance on the network of terror diminished, and it was subsumed within the emergent transnational state. In line with this shift in US foreign policy strategy in the South, some aspects of the training began to be characterised by the promotion of legitimation. In the wake of 9/11, the US has intensified both its legitimation efforts and its use of repression, and the training continues to play a significant role in the service of US foreign policy objectives.

Capitalist Economic Terrorism

Workers worldwide must wake up to how capitalist terrorists are literally destroying them day in and day out. It's often difficult for Americans to believe that their rulers are as ruthless and pitiless as they really are--and hence clearly deserve the name terrorists. It may help to see one of the cabal terrorists in action, in this instance Marie Jana Korbelová, aka Madeliene Albright, 64th American Secretary of State in response to a question about 1990s U.S. economic sanctions against Iraq and the human consequences:

Question: "We have heard that half a million children have died. I mean, that's more children than died in Hiroshima. And, you know, is the price worth it?"

Reply: "I think this is a very hard choice, but the price—we think the price is worth it."

      Albright is no more barbarous in her behavior and attitudes than any other of her cabal fellow terrorists. Financial terrorism such as imposing economic sanctions against a state the junta chooses is one of their favorite tactics--regardless of human consequences.
      Often, people are able to comprehend current events when they see that they're in essence a repeat of earlier occurrences. In this essay, we'll explore the identical features of the 1929 economic crash and the 2008 capitalist terrorist attack on the world economy.
      Both in 1929 and again now, people find it difficult to understand that seemingly accidental events--like economic crashes--are in reality planned and orchestrated by totally unscrupulous persons with immense power.

    "The streets and people of New York are devastated for the second time in a decade. This time, the culprits behind the wrecked lives and ruined livelihoods are not foreign extremists, but homegrown. And rather than receive appropriate retribution, the perpetrators receive billions of government dollars for their demolition job."
Tom Engelhardt, "Economic dirty bomb goes off in New York,"
March 26, 2009, Tomdispatch

The Center for Public Integrity

The mission of the Center for Public Integrity is to produce original investigative journalism about significant public issues to make institutional power more transparent and accountable. To pursue its mission, the Center:
Generates high-quality, accessible investigative reports, databases, and contextual analysis on issues of public importance.
Disseminates work to journalists, policymakers, scholars, and citizens using a combination of digital, electronic, and print media.
Educates, engages, and empowers citizens with the tools and skills they need to hold governments and other institutions accountable.
Organizes and supports investigative journalists around the world who apply the Center’s values, mission, and standards to cross-border projects.
Remains independent by building a strong and sustainable financial base of support, including a community of committed individuals and foundations.
The business of war
- 2002
Making a Killing: The Business of War
Privatizing Combat, the New World Order
Marketing the New 'Dogs of War'
Greasing the Skids of Corruption
The Curious Bonds of Oil Diplomacy
Conflict Diamonds are Forever
The Adventure Capitalist
The Influence Peddlers
The Field Marshal
Drugs, Diamonds and Deadly Cargoes
The Merchant of Death

 Wikileaks Mirrors

"Could become as important a journalistic tool as the Freedom of Information Act." - Time Magazine
WikiLeaks is a non-profit media organization dedicated to bringing important news and information to the public. We provide an innovative, secure and anonymous way for independent sources around the world to leak information to our journalists. We publish material of ethical, political and historical significance while keeping the identity of our sources anonymous, thus providing a universal way for the revealing of suppressed and censored injustices.
WikiLeaks relies on its supporters in order to stay strong. Please keep us at the forefront of anti-censorship and support us today. You can also read more about WikiLeaks, our mission and objectives.

Planet Under Pressure
A six-part BBC News Online series looking at some of the most pressing environmental issues facing the human race today. By Alex Kirby BBC News Online environment correspondent
Part 1: Species under threat
Part 2: World water crisis
Part 3: Energy crisis
Part 4: Feeding the world
Part 5: Climate change
Part 6: Fighting pollution
Why the Sun seems to be "dimming"
Horizon: Global Dimming
Project Censored's Media Freedom International
Media Democracy in Action
Project Censored’s objective include the training of students in media literacy, First Amendment issues, and the advocacy for, and protection of, free press rights in the United States and around the world. Project Censored has trained over 1,500 students in investigative research in the past three decades.

Project Censored was founded by Dr. Carl Jensen in 1976, and is a media research program working in cooperation with numerous independent media groups in the US. Through a partnership of faculty, students, and the community, Project Censored conducts research on important news stories that are underreported, ignored, misrepresented, or censored by the US corporate media. Each year, Project Censored publishes a ranking of the top 25 most censored nationally important news stories in the yearbook, Censored: Media Democracy in Action, which is released every October 1, what Molly Ivins dubbed Media Accountability Day.

Between 700 and 1000 stories are submitted to Project Censored each year from journalists, scholars, librarians, and concerned citizens around the world. With the help of faculty, students, and community members across the US and increasingly around the world, Project Censored reviews story submissions for coverage, content, reliability of sources and national significance. The university community selects 25 stories to submit to the Project Censored panel of judges who then rank them in order of importance. Current or previous national judges include: Noam Chomsky, Susan Faludi, George Gerbner, Sut Jhally, Frances Moore Lappe, Michael Parenti, Herbert I. Schiller, Barbara Seaman, Erna Smith, Mike Wallace and Howard Zinn. All 25 stories are featured in the yearbook, Censored: The News That Didn’t Make the News.

Dr. Peter Phillips, president of the Media Freedom Foundation (nonprofit that oversees Project Censored), recently stepped down as the second director of the Project after 14 years, turning it over to Prof. Mickey Huff who now works as new director of PC in concert with MFF and college affiliates in producing the annual censored book as well as posting Validated Independent News year round.

BBC World Service Global Poll - November 9, 2009
Wide Dissatisfaction with Capitalism -- Twenty Years after Fall of Berlin Wall

Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, a new BBC World Service global poll finds that dissatisfaction with free market capitalism is widespread, with an average of only 11% across 27 countries saying that it works well and that greater regulation is not a good idea.
In only two countries do more than one in five feel that capitalism works well as it stands--the US (25%) and Pakistan (21%).
The most common view is that free market capitalism has problems that can be addressed through regulation and reform--a view held by an average of 51% of more than 29,000 people polled by GlobeScan/PIPA.
Educate! Organize! Agitate!. Support Indy Media came online on 27th March 2002. It is founded and edited by Binu Mathew. It is financed fully by volantary reader subscription. In the truest spirit of independent internet journalism, we believe that whatever news, views and analysis given out from countercurrents should be independent in the truest sense of the word and free of biases. That's why we dont seek corporate or institutional sponsors; no banner advertising; no pop-up ads; no selling or renting of our mailing lists and no foundation donations. is an alternative news site. "We bring out what the mainstream media fails to tell you, or hides from you. These are the things that really matter. The things which may determine the fate of planet earth! The future of our children! In a word, the survival of the species!" stands for peace and justice. Our sympathies are with all those who are engaged in struggles for economic, political, social, cultural, gender, environmental justice and more....
This is a non profit and educational initiative.

Americas Program

The Americas Policy Program was started as an initiative of the International Relations Center, founded in 1979 as a small but dynamic nonprofit policy studies center whose overarching goal was to help forge a new global affairs agenda for the U.S. government and people—one that would make the United States a more responsible global leader and partner.
Although the IRC no longer exists, we carry on this work in much the same way—producing policy reports, issue briefs, political commentary, and popular education materials offering essential information and credible, forward-looking policy analysis. Through these materials, we seek to educate policymakers, influence public debates regarding the U.S. role in global affairs, change public opinion, inform activists, and foster strategic dialogue among progressives across the globe on key issues like economic globalization, sustainable development, and peace and security. In 2007 we transitioned to become a fiscally sponsored program of the Center for International Policy based in Washington, DC.
The Americas Policy Program’s mission is to advance “a new world of citizen action, analysis, and policy options.” We promote informed critiques and new policy frameworks to address pressing environmental, security, economic, and social problems that undermine human development and cooperative international relations in the Western Hemisphere.

A project of the Institute for Policy Studies
Foreign Policy In Focus

Foreign Policy in Focus (FPIF) is a “Think Tank Without Walls” connecting the research and action of more than 600 scholars, advocates, and activists seeking to make the United States a more responsible global partner. It is a project of the Institute for Policy Studies.
FPIF provides timely analysis of U.S. foreign policy and international affairs and recommends policy alternatives. We believe U.S. security and world stability are best advanced through a commitment to peace, justice and environmental protection as well as economic, political, and social rights. We advocate that diplomatic solutions, global cooperation, and grassroots participation guide foreign policy. For a more detailed explanation of our foreign policy vision, please consult Just Security, our framework document.

From the Institute for Policy Studies
Right Web
Exposing the architecture of power that's changing our world
Tracking militarists’ efforts to influence U.S. foreign policy

Right Web is a program of the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS) that assesses the work of prominent organizations and individuals—both in and out of government—who promote militarist U.S. foreign and defense policies, with a special focus on the “war on terror” and the Middle East. Right Web aims to foster informed public debate about these policies with feature articles and profiles of individuals and organizations that examine political discourses and institutional allegiances over time.

George W. Bush Files
  Gloves Off
(bare-fisted political economy)

L. Haugaard: Textbook Repression: US training manuals declassified
U.S. Army Training Manuals used at the School of the Americas
Monthly Review:
Africa - Asia - Empire & The new imperialism - Europe - Feminism/Women - Food & Hunger - Globalization - Iraq & U.S. imperialism - Labor/Working-class - Latin America & Caribbean - Marxist ecology - Media/Communications - The war on terrorism & The new police state - U.S. politics/economy - Social/Political theory

New Left Review
Multinational Monitor
Socialism & Democracy
Global Policy Forum
Cultural Logic
Andre Gunder Frank website
The official Noam Chomsky website
The Noam Chomsky Archive

The Consortium for Independent Journalism
Imperial Bush
W's war on the environment
By Sam Parry - April 12, 2001

George W. Bush’s new budget reads like a battle plan against the world’s environment, with Bush adding a bizarre twist: holding Alaska’s Arctic National Wildlife Refuge as a kind of hostage.

International Political Economy Network

Prensa Latina

On June 16, 1959, only six months after the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, the first news with the PL abbreviation circulated out of Havana into the world. Prensa Latina News Agency was thus born amid the revolutionary effervescence of those days, with the intention of reporting on what was really happening in Cuba, to give the world a vision of Latin America different to those offered by big media monopolies of the time.

In the 21st century
Half a century after its foundation, Prensa Latina has a solid, modern structure allowing it to successfully insert itself in the complex, competitive world of international news agencies.
A team of editors, writers, reporters, photographers, as well as correspondents and stringers worldwide contribute to PL news services, supported by highly qualified technicians and engineers who make possible that PL messages on the most diverse issues reach the world.
Over 400 dispatches comprise the world news service PL transmits each day in Spanish, English, Portuguese, Italian, Russian and Turkish.

The films and journalism of John Pilger
Welcome to the new John Pilger website, a remarkable resource and historical record and now arguably the most comprehensive online collection of the work of a leading journalist. For the first time, the majority of John Pilger's 58 films for television and cinema can be viewed online. New features include a video and article search, a newsletter, social media tools and an RSS feed. The site's relaunch has been made possible by the University of Lincoln, which is preparing a complete digital archive of John Pilger's work.

Climate and Capitalism
Ecosocialism or Barbarism: There is no third way

CLIMATE AND CAPITALISM is an online journal focusing on capitalism, climate change, and the ecosocialist alternative. It has three goals:
- To provide news and analysis to inform, educate and develop the green left;
- To contribute to building an international movement against capitalist destruction of the environment and for ecosocialism;
To encourage and facilitate collaboration and exchanges of views among socialists and ecology activists.

The opinions expressed in individual articles are not necessarily those of the editor.

From Business Insider
Finally, A Rich American Destroys The Fiction That Rich People Create The Jobs
Henry Blodget - December 2011

In the war of rhetoric that has developed in Washington as both sides blame each other for our economic mess, one argument has been repeated so often that many people now regard it as fact:
Rich people create the jobs.
Specifically, entrepreneurs and investors, when incented by low taxes, build companies and create millions of jobs.
And these entrepreneurs and investors, therefore, the argument goes, can solve our nation's huge unemployment problem — if only we cut taxes and regulations so they can be incented to build more companies and create more jobs.

No, Entrepreneurs Like Steve Jobs Do Not "Create Jobs" By Inventing Products Like The iPhone
Henry Blodget - December 2011
A billionaire named Nick Hanauer recently wrote an editorial for Bloomberg in which he destroyed the argument that the jobs in America are created by rich entrepreneurs and investors. In our current "class war" climate, this argument has been repeated so often that it's now regarded as fact. And it is frequently and passionately invoked to defend the idea that we should make further tax cuts for rich people — so rich people can have an incentive to create more jobs.
CHARTS: Here's What The Wall Street Protesters Are So Angry About...
Henry Blodget - October 2011

...yes, they have very legitimate gripes.
And if America cannot figure out a way to address these gripes, the country will likely become increasingly "de-stabilized, " as sociologists might say. And in that scenario, the current protests will likely be only the beginning.
The problem in a nutshell is this: Inequality in this country has hit a level that has been seen only once in the nation's history, and unemployment has reached a level that has been seen only once since the Great Depression. And, at the same time, corporate profits are at a record high.
In other words, in the never-ending tug-of-war between "labor" and "capital," there has rarely—if ever—been a time when "capital" was so clearly winning

Mitt Romney Supporters Appear To Be Delusional About A Key Reason For His 13% Tax Rate
Henry Blodget - August 2012

You can't write about tax rates these days without getting shelled by those who feel their favorite Presidential candidate is being attacked by whatever you say.
That's too bad, because it hinders the ability to have a reasoned discussion about taxes, which is a discussion this country desperately needs to have.

  15 Mind-Blowing Facts About Wealth And Inequality In America
Gus Lubin - November 2010

The rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer. Cliché, sure, but it's more true than at any time since the Gilded Age.
While politicians gloat about our "recovery," our poor are getting poorer, our average wages are still falling behind inflation, and social mobility is at an all-time low.
But, yes, if you're in that top 1%, life in America is grand...



Editor: Dr. Róbinson Rojas Sandford
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