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Economic literacy                                                                                                                    Search:  Economics
Without economic literacy there is no possibility to understand processes of social change. Unfortunately, economic literacy is a rare commodity in capitalist, semicapitalist and protocapitalist societies where primary, secondary and university education is extremely poor for the majority -and extremely good for a wealthy minority-  which, of course is convenient for maintaining the extremely wealthy minority dominant position in society. To help students and researchers  I provide this 'rearrangement' of  valuable basic literature on economic literacy. Of course, this is just a first step. Without this first step, though, development issues cannot be understood, and, therefore, fighting against the barbaric social, political, cultural and economic effects of unleashed capitalist markets will be even more difficult. (Dr. Rσbinson Rojas)

Karl Marx                                                  Capital
                                                               Volume One

1867: Dedication to Wilhelm Wolff
1867: Preface to the First German Edition
1872: Preface to the French Edition
1873: Afterword to the Second German Edition
1875: Afterword to the French Edition
1883: Preface to the Third German Edition
1886: Preface to the English Edition
1890: Preface to the Fourth German Edition
1867: Marx's letter to Engels


Ch. 1: Commodities

Section 1 — The Two Factors of a Commodity: Use-Value and Value (the Substance of Value and the Magnitude of Value)
Section 2 — The Two-fold Character of the Labour Embodied in Commodities
Section 3 — The Form of Value or Exchange-Value

A. Elementary or Accidental Form of Value

1. The Two Poles of the Expression of Value: Relative Form and Equivalent Form
2. The Relative Form of Value

a. The Nature and Import of this Form
b. Quantitative Determination of Relative Value

3. The Equivalent Form of Value
4. The Elementary Form of Value Considered as a Whole

B. Total or Expanded Form of Value

1. The Expanded Relative Form of Value
2. The Particular Equivalent Form
3. Defects of the Total or Expanded Form of Value

C. The General Form of Value

1. The Altered Character of the Form of Value
2. The Interdependent Development of the Relative Form of Value, and of the Equivalent Form
3. Transition from the General Form of Value to the Money-Form

D. The Money-Form

Section 4 — The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret thereof

Ch. 2: Exchange

Ch. 3: Money, or the Circulation of Commodities

Section 1 — The Measure of Values
Section 2 — The Medium of Circulation

A. The Metamorphosis of Commodities
B. The Currency of Money
C. Coin and Symbols of Value

Section 3 — Money

A. Hoarding
B. Means of Payment
C. Universal Money


Ch. 4: The General Formula for Capital

Ch. 5: Contradictions in the General Formula of Capital

Ch. 6: The Buying and Selling of Labour-Power


Ch. 7: The Labour-Process and the Process of Producing Surplus-Value

Section 1 — The Labour-Process or the Production of Use-Values
Section 2 — The Production of Surplus-Value

Ch. 8: Constant Capital and Variable Capital

Ch. 9: The Rate of Surplus-Value

Section 1 — The Degree of Exploitation of Labour-Power
Section 2 — The Representation of the Components of the Value of the Product by Corresponding Proportional Parts of the Product itself
Section 3 — Senior's "Last Hour"
Section 4 — Surplus-Produce

Ch. 10: The Working-Day

Section 1 — The Limits of the Working-Day
Section 2 — The Greed for Surplus-Labour. Manufacturer and Boyard
Section 3 — Branches of English Industry without Legal Limits to Exploitation
Section 4 — Day and Night Work. The Relay System
Section 5 — The Struggle for a Normal Working-Day. Compulsory Laws for the Extension of the Working-Day from the Middle of the 14th to the End of the 17th Century
Section 6 — The Struggle for the Normal Working-Day. Compulsory Limitation by Law of the Working-Time. The English Factory Acts, 1833 to 1864
Section 7 — The Struggle for the Normal Working-Day. Reaction of the English Factory Acts on Other Countries

Ch. 11: Rate and Mass of Surplus-Value


Ch. 12: The Concept of Relative Surplus-Value

Ch. 13: Co-operation

Ch. 14: Division of Labour and Manufacture

Section 1 — Two-fold Origin of Manufacture
Section 2 — The Detail Labourer and his Implements
Section 3 — The Two Fundamental Forms of Manufacture: Heterogeneous Manufacture, Serial Manufacture
Section 4 — Division of Labour in Manufacture, and Division of Labour in Society
Section 5 — The Capitalistic Character of Manufacture

Ch. 15: Machinery and Modern Industry

Section 1 — The Development of Machinery
Section 2 — The Value Transferred by Machinery to the Product
Section 3 — The Proximate Effects of Machinery on the Workman

A. Appropriation of Supplementary Labour-Power by Capital. The Employment of Women and Children
B. Prolongation of the Working-Day
C. Intensification of Labour

Section 4 — The Factory
Section 5 — The Strife Between Workman and Machine
Section 6 — The Theory of Compensation as Regards the Workpeople Displaced by Machinery
Section 7 — Repulsion and Attraction of Workpeople by the Factory System. Crises in the Cotton Trade
Section 8 — Revolution Effected in Manufacture, Handicrafts, and Domestic Industry by Modern Industry

A. Overthrow of Co-operation Based on Handicraft and on the Division of Labour
B. Reaction of the Factory System on Manufacture and Domestic Industries
C. Modern Manufacture
D. Modern Domestic Industry
E. Passage of Modern Manufacture, and Domestic Industry into Modern Mechanical Industry. The Hastening of this Revolution by the Application of the Factory Acts to those Industries

Section 9 — The Factory Acts. Sanitary and Educational Clauses of the same. Their General Extension in England
Section 10 — Modern Industry and Agriculture


Ch. 16: Absolute and Relative Surplus-Value

Ch. 17: Changes of Magnitude in the Price of Labour-Power and in Surplus-Value

Section 1. Length of the Working-Day and Intensity of Labour Constant. Productiveness of Labour Variable
Section 2. Working-Day Constant. Productiveness of Labour Constant. Intensity of Labour Variable
Section 3. Productiveness and Intensity of Labour Constant. Length of the Working-Day Variable
Section 4. Simultaneous Variations in the Duration, Productiveness, and Intensity of Labour

A. Diminishing Productiveness of Labour with a Simultaneous Lengthening of the Working-Day
B. Increasing Intensity and Productiveness of Labour with Simultaneous Shortening of the Working-Day

Ch. 18: Various Formula for the Rate of Surplus-Value


Ch. 19: The Transformation of the Value (and Respective Price) of Labour-Power into Wages

Ch. 20: Time-Wages

Ch. 21: Piece-Wages

Ch. 22: National Differences of Wages


Ch. 23: Simple Reproduction

Ch. 24: Conversion of Surplus-Value into Capital

Section I — Capitalist Production on a Progressively Increasing Scale. Transition of the Laws of Property that Characterise Production of Commodities into Laws of Capitalist Appropriation
Section 2 — Erroneous Conception, by Political Economy, of Reproduction on a Progressively Increasing Scale
Section 3 — Separation of Surplus-Value into Capital and Revenue. The Abstinence Theory
Section 4 — Circumstances that, Independently of the Proportional Division of Surplus-Value into Capital and Revenue, Determine the Amount of Accumulation. Degree of Exploitation of Labour-Power. Productivity of Labour. Growing Difference in Amount Between Capital Employed and Capital Consumed. Magnitude of Capital Advanced
Section 5 — The So-Called Labour-Fund

Ch. 25: The General Law of Capitalist Accumulation

Section 1 — The Increased Demand for Labour-Power that Accompanies Accumulation, the Composition of Capital Remaining the same
Section 2 — Relative Diminution of the Variable Part of Capital Simultaneously with the Progress of Accumulation and of the Concentration that Accompanies it
Section 3 — Progressive Production of a Relative Surplus-Population or Industrial Reserve Army
Section 4 — Different Forms of the Relative Surplus-Population. The General Law of Capitalistic Accumulation
Section 5 — Illustrations of the General Law of Capitalist Accumulation

A. England from 1846-1866
B. The Badly Paid Strata of the British Industrial Class
C. The Nomad Population
D. Effect of Crises on the Best Paid Part of the Working-Class
E. The British Agricultural Proletariat
F. Ireland


Ch. 26: The Secret of Primitive Accumulation

Ch. 27: Expropriation of the Agricultural Population from the Land

Ch. 28: Bloody Legislation against the Expropriated, from the End of the 15th Century. Forcing down of Wages by Acts of Parliament

Ch. 29: Genesis of the Capitalist Farmer

Ch. 30: Reaction of the Agricultural Revolution on Industry. Creation of the Home-Market for Industrial Capital

Ch. 31: Genesis of the Industrial Capitalist

Ch. 32: Historical Tendency of Capitalist Accumulation

Ch. 33: The Modern Theory of Colonisation

Appendix to the First German Edition: The Value-Form

Transcribed by Zodiac (1993)
Html Markup by Stephen Baird (1999)

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