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State of the Asian Cities 2010/2011


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The report throws new light on current issues and challenges which national and local governments, the business sector and organised civil society are facing. On top of putting forward a number of recommendations, this report testifies to the wealth of good, innovative practice that countries of all sizes and development stages have accumulated across the region. It shows us that sustainable human settlements are within reach, and that cooperation between public authorities, the private and the voluntary sectors is the key to success. This report highlights a number of critical issues – demographic and economic trends, poverty and inequality, the environment, climate change and urban governance and management.

Part 01: The State of Asian Cities: Overview and Key Findings

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Urbanizing Asia
1.3 The Economic Role of Asian Cities
1.4 Poverty and Inequality in Asian Cities
1.5 The Urban Environment and Climate Change
1.6 Urban Governance, Management and Finance in Asia
1.7 The Structure of the Report


1.1: The Asia-Pacific Region. 5

Part 02: Urbanizing Asia

2.1 Urbanization trends
2.2 The factors behind urban growth
2.3 Urban corridors, mega-cities and mega urban regions
2.4 Small and medium-sized cities
2.5 Density and the pace of urbanization
2.6 Urbanization in Asia: Diagnosis & policies


2.1: The definition of ‘urban’ in Asia
2.2: Japan: One of Asia’s most urbanized countries
2.3: Nepal: One of Asia’s least urbanized countries
2.4: The challenge of reconstruction and development in Kabul
2.5: Asia’s new urban configurations
2.6: Tokyo, the world’s largest mega-city
2.7: Dhaka: Managing growth in a poor mega-city
2.8: Decentralization: Best practice from Tarakan, Indonesia


2.1: Urban share in total population, 1990-2030
2.2: Urbanization in Japan
2.3: Urbanization in Nepal
2.4: Urbanization in Asia and the Pacific, 1990-2020
2.5: Urbanization in East and North-East Asia, 1990-2020
2.6: Urbanization in South-East Asia, 1990-2020 . 40
2.7: Urbanization in South and South-West Asia, 1990-2020
2.8: Urbanization in the Pacific subregion, 1990-2020
2.9: Urbanization in North and Central Asia, 1990-2020
2.10: Contribution of migration/reclassification to urban growth in East Asia, 1970-2030 (%)
2.11: Asian cities with populations of 10 million or more
2.12: Mega-urban regions in South-East Asia – Population, 1990-2000
2.13: Population distribution in Asia, 2010
2.14: Urban growth rates in world’s regions, 1990-2030 (%)
2.15: Asia’s fastest growing cities, 1995-2005


2.1: Global urbanization rates, 1990-203033
2.2: Asia’s Urbanization trends, 1970-2030
2.3: Percentage of urban populations in the Asia-Pacific Region
2.4: Urbanization in East and North-East Asia
2.5: Urbanization in South-East Asia – Trends, 1990-2020
2.6: Urbanization in South and South-West Asia, 1990-2020
2.7: Urbanization in the Pacific subregion, 1990-2020
2.8: Youth aged 15-24: proportion in Asia-Pacific subregions, 1950-2050
2.9: The top 10 Asian mega-cities
2.10: The distribution of settlements in Asia
2.11: Density in Asian cities (residents per sq km)
2.12: Urban growth rates in Asia-Pacific, 1990-2005 (%)

Part 03: The Economic Role of Asian Cities

3.1 Cities as engines of economic growth
3.2 The main drivers of Asia’s urban economies
3.3 Urbanization and the informal economy in Asia
3.4 Asia: Beyond the ‘factory of the world’
3.5 Asian cities and local development
3.6 Diagnosis and future challenges


3.1: Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam’s economic powerhouse
3.2: Thailand’s emergence as a hub for auto exports
3.3: Shanghai, an urban revival
3.4: When civil society tackles employment deficits: Good practice from Ahmedabad
3.5: How cities can support street vendors
3.6: The Bangalore revolution
3.7: Balancing urban and rural development: China’s Chongqing metropolitan region


3.1: GDP per head: growth rates in major regions, 1990-2005
3.2: Equity inflows by major world region, 2000-2007 (US $ billion)
3.3: Asia’s busiest ports
3.4: Asia’s top 20 cities for gross domestic product
3.5: Asia’s top-ranking financial centres


3.1: Share of urban areas in GDP, Asia and the Pacific, 1990-2008. 72
3.2: GDP per world region, 1990-2008 (in 1990 US $ billion)
3.3: GDP per head: changes in growth rates in major regions, 2007-2008 (%)
3.4: FDI growth in the world, 2000-2007 (US $ billion)
3.5: Share of urban areas in GDP, Asia and the Pacific, 2008
3.6: Contribution of exports to GDP, 1990 and 2007 (%)
3.7: Share of informal jobs in non-agricultural/urban employment, various years (%)
3.8: Net enrolment ratios in primary education
3.9: Education profile of the labour force in select Asian countries, 1990s-2004

Part 04: Poverty and inequality in Asian cities

4.1 Poverty
4.2 Poverty in Asia
4.3 Inequality
4.4 Access to land and housing
4.5 Access to basic urban services
4.6 Diagnosis and future challenges


4.1: National poverty lines – urban and rural
4.2: From an exclusive to an inclusive city
4.3: How some Asian countries beat the millennium slum target
4.4: When policymaking reaches out to informal settlements: The case of Ulaanbaatar
4.5: Bridging the urban divide – UN-Habitat’s recommendations
4.6: How to rehabilitate a squat: Nepal’s Kirtipur housing project
4.7: Beating eviction in a global city: People-managed resettlement in Mumbai
4.8: Slum upgrading pioneers in Asian cities
4.9: Public housing delivery and ownership: Singapore shows the way
4.10: Community contracts: Good practice from Sri Lanka
4.11: Good practice from Cambodia: The urban poor development fund
4.12: Good practice from Thailand: The Baan Mankong financing programme
4.13: Community-managed water points in urban slums, Bangladesh
4.14: Improving access to water for the urban poor: A tale of three cities
4.15: Community management of shared sanitation facilities
4.16: Electricity for the poor: Good practice from Ahmedabad
4.17: Cycle rickshaws: A policy blind spot
4.18: China promotes electric bikes and scooters


4.1: Urban and rural poverty rates - at/under “US $1 a day” (1993 ppp)
4.2: Share of population on or under national poverty lines, rural and urban areas
4.3: Gini coefficients and the human development index (HDI), 2004
4.4: Rural and urban poverty gap ratios and Gini indices – China, India and Indonesia
4.5: Slum population in Asia and the Pacific subregions, 2010 (Projections)
4.6: Asia’s slum populations: 1990-2007
4.7: Key indicators of urban poverty in India
4.8: Reported forced evictions in major Asian countries, 2001-2005 (Numbers of victims)
4.9: Urban populations: Access to water supply, 1990-2008
4.10: Transportation in Asian cities – Modal Breakdown


4.1: Poverty in the developing world on US $1.25 a day and under
4.2: Poverty in Asia
4.3: Population living on less than US $1.25 a day in Asia and the Pacific
4.4: National poverty lines in Asia-Pacific: richer countries tend to have higher poverty lines
4.5: Income/Consumption inequality - average urban Gini coefficients by region (selected countries)
4.6: Changes in Gini coefficient for expenditure/income distributions, 1990s–2000s (percentage points)
4.7: National Gini coefficients, selected Asian-Pacific countries, various years (2002-2004
4.8: Intra-urban inequalities (Gini coefficients)
4.9: Distribution of urban population by degree of shelter deprivation, 2005
4.10: Distribution of moderately deprived slum-dwellers (one deprivation) by type of deprivation, 2005
4.11: Status of urban water supply by MDG region, 2008
4.12: Trends in access to urban water in Asian subregions
4.13: Trends in national level access to water, 1990-2008
4.14: Status of urban sanitation by MDG subregion, 2008
4.15: Trends in access to urban sanitation by MDG subregion in Asia


4.1: Percentage change in slum proportions in selected countries in Asia between 1990 and 2010 (estimate)

Part 05: The Urban Environment and Climate Change

5.1 Introduction
5.2 The defining features of Asia’s urban environmental challenges
5.3 Environmental conditions in Asian cities
5.4 The challenge of climate change in Asian cities
5.5 Towards improved environmental planning and management in Asian cities
5.6 Urban Asia and the environment: Diagnosis and policies


5.1: The Shenzhen environment outlook: Balancing environment and development challenges
5.2: Water stream regeneration: Good practice from Seoul
5.3: A viable, integrated waste management system for urban Asia
5.4: A compact, dynamic and liveable city: Fukuoka, Japan. 180
5.5: Asia spearheads UN-Habitat’s new climate change initiative
5.6: Climate change adaptation: A ‘fluid’ alternative for Bangkok
5.7: When India’s Supreme Court endorses the case for clean air
5.8: UN-Habitat’s innovative urban network
5.9: Renewable energy use: Good practice from Rizhao, China
5.10: The climate change mitigation initiative in Bangkok
5.11: The ‘Sustainable Cities Programme’, 20-plus years on
5.12: From heavy industry to eco-town: Good practice from Kitakyushu, Japan


5.1: Urban solid waste – generation rate (selected Asian countries)
5.2: Liveability index for 37 Asian cities (2007)
5.3: Projected changes in energy use for transportation, 2006-2030
5.4: The cities and climate change initiative (CCCI) Asian-Pacific strategy
5.5: Greenhouse gas emissions, selected transport systems
5.6: GHG emissions in Bangkok metropolitan area (2007 - 2012)


5.1: Micro-particulate matter in selected Asian cities (micrograms per cubic metre)
5.2: Nitrous dioxide in selected Asian cities (micrograms per cubic metre)
5.3: Sulphur dioxide in selected Asian cities (micrograms per cubic metre)
5.4: Average dry- and wet-season particulate concentrations: PM2.5 (A) and PM10 (B) in six Asian cities
5.5: The cumulative impact of natural disasters by Asian subregion, 1991-2009


5.1: Urban environmental problems and positive economic outcomes
5.2: Land area less than 20m above sea level in Asia

Part 06: Urban governance, management and finance

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Urban governance and operational structures
6.3 The principles of urban governance
6.4 Types of urban governance systems
6.5 Mega urban region development
6.6 Decentralization and government functions
6.7 Financing urban development
6.8 Performance in service delivery management
6.9 Cooperation networks
6.10 Diagnosis and future challenges


6.1: A decentralised political ‘space’ for sustainable urbanisation
6.2: Participatory urban governance: Good practice from Karachi
6.3: City cluster development: The potential in India
6.4: City-region governance: Metropolitan Manila
6.5: A mixed system of regional governance: Kuala Lumpur
6.6: Unified metropolitan government and governance: Shenzhen, China
6.7: Deconcentration and decentralization in Thailand
6.8: UN-Habitat’s guidelines on decentralisation: An overview
6.9: Private sector participation in urban development: Suzhou, China
6.10: Privatization of water services: Greater Jakarta
6.11: Effective water management: Phnom Penh
6.12: When grassroots groups improve basic municipal services


6.1: Allocation of responsibilities for urban functions in a mixed system of regional governance
6.2: Main characteristics of well-performing water utilities in Asia


6.1: Basic stakeholders in urban governance
6.2: The clustering of urban nodes in the Bangkok Metropolitan region
6.3: South China’s Pearl River delta region

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