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The State of China's cities 2010/2011

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This title, State of China’s Cities, is a joint effort between UN-HABITAT, China Science Center of International Eurasian Academy of Sciences and China Association of Mayors. This report, covers five strategic steps to nurture and grow smarter cities. It aims to make easy access of international readers to the information about policies and practices that have engendered smart urbanization of China in the past 60 years. It also provides the experiences, lessons and challenges faced by China in sustaining its urban development in the context of rapid industrialization and urbanization within a globalizing world.


Executive Summary /2
Chapter 1 Urbanization Process in China
1 Urban Development in the Last Sixty Years /8
1.1 Historic Review of Urban Development /8
1.2 Important Role of Cities in National Economic Development /10
1.3 Expansion of Employment Opportunities in Cities /11
1.4 Improvement of the Functions of Cities and Life of Urban Residents /12
2 Innovative Urban Institutions and Policies /16
2.1 Institutional Innovations to Promote Urban Development /16
2.2 Regional and Spatial Distribution of Cities and Towns /17
2.3 Floating Population and Rural Migrant Workers /20
Chapter 2 Urban Housing Development in China
1 Retrospect of Urban Housing Development and Policies /24
1.1 Progressive Reform of the Housing System /24
1.2 Increased Housing Investment and Accelerated Housing Development /24
1.3 New Social Housing System launched in the Reform /25
2 State of Urban Housing Development and Policies /26
2.1 New Housing Policies Adapted to Economic Reform and National Conditions /26
2.2 Healthy Real Estate Market with Government’s priority on Housing for Low-income Families /27
2.3 Obvious
Contradictions and Challenges in Urban Housing Development /30
3 Urban Community Development /32
3.1 Expansion of Communities and Their Services /32
3.2 Building of Community Self-governance Organizations /33
Chapter 3 Urban Environment and Infrastructure in China
1 State of Urban Environment /38
1.1 Partial Improvement of Water Environment /38
1.2 General Improvement of Air Quality /39
1.3 Effective Control of Noise Pollution /41
1.4 Increased Use of Solid Waste /41
2 Urban Water Supply and Water Discharge /42
2.1 Expansion of Water Supply Capacity /42
2.2 Gradual Improvement of Sewage Treatment Facilities /42
2.3 Great Achievements in Water Saving /43
3 Urban Gas and Heat Supply /44
3.1 Continuous Improvement of Urban Gas Supply Facilities /44
3.2 Remarkable Enhancement of Urban Heat Supply Capacity /45
4 Municipal Roads and Traffic /46
4.1 Continuous Development of Urban Road Facilities /46
4.2 Continuous Optimization of Public Transport Facilities /46
5 Environmental Sanitation /47
5.1 Continuous Improvement of Garbage Collection System /47
5.2 Gradual Increase of Garbage Treatment Level /47
6 Parks and Public Green Space /48
6.1 Continuous Enlargement of Public Green Space /48
6.2 Remarkable Improvement of Park Development Quality /49
7 Responding to Climate Changes /50
7.1 Strengthening Legal Restrictions and Policy Guidance /50
7.2 Exploring new ways for Low Carbon Urban Development /51
7.3 International Exchange and Technological Cooperation /52
Chapter 4 Social Development and Urban Services in China
1 Urban Social Security and Assistance /56
1.1 Continuous Development of Social Assistance /56
1.2 Effective Work in Emergency Relief /57
1.3 Breakthrough in building Various Adoption Institutions /58
1.4 Healthy Development of Services for the Elderly /59
2 Urban Health Care /60
2.1 Urban Health Care Security System /60
2.2 Health Service Institutions /60
3 Education Development /62
3.1 Full Realization of Urban and Rural Compulsory Education /62
3.2 General Development of Higher Education /62
3.3 Rapid Development of Vocational Education /62
3.4 Promotion of Equality in Education /62
3.5 Establishment of Modern Education Systems /63
Emerging Social Charity /65
Chapter 5 Urban Planning and Management in China
1 Origin and Development of Modern Urban Planning and Management /70
1.1 Traditional Urban Planning and Management in Ancient China /70
1.2 Urban Planning and Management under the Planned Economy System /71
1.3 Urban Planning and Management under the Market Economy Environment /72
2 Urban Planning and Management System /74
2.1 Urban Management /74
2.2 Urban Planning Administration
3 Challenges in Urban Planning and Management and Their Countermeasures
3.1 Implementing National Urbanization Strategies /81
3.2 Enforcing Regional Development Plans /81
3.3 Regulating Urban Planning and Administration Procedures /81
3.4 Developing Plans to Provide Housing for Low-income Families /82
3.5 Formulating Plans to Improve Urban Transport /82
3.6 Upgrading the Approval of Urban Comprehensive Plans /83
3.7 Post Disaster Planning and Reconstruction /84
3.8 Preserving Historic and Cultural Heritages /84
Chapter 6 Future Challenges of Urban Development in China
Statistical Annex
1 Basic Urban Statistics of China from 1978 to 2008 /92
2 Basic Statistics of China’s 287 Cities at and above prefecture level in 2008 /94
3 Statement on the Basic Data of “The State of China’s Cities” /100
4 Winners of China Habitat Environment Award, 2001-2009 /102
5 Chinese winners of UN-HABITAT Scroll of Honor, 1990-2009 /103

Cases study: Yangquan, Liaoyuan, Longyan and Xiangfan

*The content of this Report only covers the Mainland China, does not cover Hong Kong SAR, Macau SAR and Taiwan.

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