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On Planning for Development: Foreign  Investments
Published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development - UNCTAD
WORLD INVESTMENT REPORT 2013
Global Value Chains: Investment and trade for development

Full text

Cover - Contents - Preface - Acknowledgements - Abbreviations - Key messages

OVERVIEW 
CHAPTER I. GLOBAL INVESTMENT TRENDS 
A. GLOBAL TRENDS: THE FDI RECOVERY FALTERS 
1. Current trends
a. FDI by geographical distribution
b. FDI by mode and sector/industry 
c. FDI by selected types of investors
d. FDI and offshore finance
2. Global FDI prospects in 2013ľ2015
a. General FDI prospects
b. FDI prospects by sector/industry
c. FDI prospects by home region
d. FDI prospects by host region
B. INTERNATIONAL PRODUCTION
1. Overall trends
2. Repositioning: the strategic divestment, relocation and reshoring of foreign operations
C. FDI INCOME AND RATES OF RETURN
1. Trends in FDI income
a. General trends
b. Rates of return
c. Reinvested earnings versus repatriated earnings
2. Impacts of FDI income on the balance of payments of host countries
3. Policy implications
CHAPTER II. REGIONAL TRENDS IN FDI 
INTRODUCTION
A. REGIONAL TRENDS 
1. Africa
2. East and South-East Asia
3. South Asia
4. West Asia 
5. Latin America and the Caribbean
6. Transition economies
7. Developed countries
B. TRENDS IN STRUCTURALLY WEAK, VULNERABLE AND SMALL ECONOMIES
1. Least developed countries
2. Landlocked developing countries
3. Small island developing States
CHAPTER III. RECENT POLICY DEVELOPMENTS
A. NATIONAL INVESTMENT POLICIES
1. Overall trends
2. Industry-specific investment policies
a. Services sector
b. Strategic industries
3. Screening of cross-border M&As
4. Risk of investment protectionism
B. INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT POLICIES
1. Ttrends in the conclusion of IIAs
a. Continued decline in treaty-making
b. Factoring in sustainable development
2. Trends in the negotiation of IIAs
a. Regionalism on the rise
b. Systemic issues arising from regionalism
3. IIA regime in transition
a. Options to improve the IIA regime
b. Treaty expirations
4. InvestorľState arbitration: options for reform
a. ISDS cases continue to grow
b. Mapping five paths for reform 
CHAPTER IV. GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS: INVESTMENT AND
TRADE FOR DEVELOPMENT

INTRODUCTION
A. GVCS AND PATTERNS OF VALUE ADDED TRADE AND INVESTMENT
1. Value added trade patterns in the global economy
2. Value added trade patterns in the developing world
3. FDI and the role of TNCs in shaping GVCs
B. GVC GOVERNANCE AND LOCATIONAL DETERMINANTS
1. GVC governance: the orchestration of fragmented and internationally
dispersed operations
2. Locational determinants of GVC activities
C. DEVELOPMENT IMPLICATIONS OF GVCS 
1. Local value capture
a. GVC contribution to GDP and growth
b. Domestic value added in trade and business linkages
c. Foreign affiliates and value added retention for the local economy
d GVCs and transfer pricing
2. Job creation, income generation and employment quality
a. GVC participation, job creation and income generation
b. GVCs and the quality of employment
3. Technology dissemination and skills building
a. Technology dissemination and learning under different GVC governance structures
b. Learning in GVCs: challenges and pitfalls
4. Social and environmental impacts
a. CSR challenges in GVCs
b Offshoring emissions: GVCs as a transfer mechanism of environmental impact
5. Upgrading and industrial development
a. Upgrading dynamically at the firm level
b. Upgrading at the country level and GVC development paths
D. POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF GVCS 
1. Embedding GVCs in development strategy
2. Enabling participation in GVCs
3. Building domestic productive capacity
4. Providing a strong environmental, social and governance framework 
a. Social, environmental and safety and health issues
b Transforming EPZs into centres of excellence for sustainable business
c Other concerns and good governance issues in GVCs
5. Synergizing trade and investment policies and institutions
a. Ensuring coherence between trade and investment policies
b Synergizing trade and investment promotion and facilitation
c Regional Industrial Development Compacts
CONCLUDING REMARKS: GVC POLICY DEVELOPMENT ľ TOWARDS
A SOUND STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK
References and Annex Tables
Methodological  note

Press Information:
26 Jun 2013 -
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...But UNCTAD also cites concerns about the impact of NEMs in host developing economies. For example, working conditions may be poor, particularly in the case of contract manufacturing in labour-intensive activities, since NEM partner firms are under strong competitive pressure to reduce costs. In some instances, NEMs can be used to circumvent social and environmental standards. The report also points to pitfalls for long-term industrial development: Developing countries need to mitigate the risk of remaining locked into low value-added activities and need to avoid overdependence on foreign technologies and inputs.


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