From URBAN AGE
American Cities: securing an urban future - 2007
Urban Age is a worldwide investigation
into the future of cities. Organised
by the Cities Programme at the London School of Economics and Political
Science and the Alfred Herrhausen Society, the International Forum of
Deutsche Bank. The URBAN AGE CITY DATA
section has been derived from various official statistical sources,
including the United Nations Statistics Division, Instituto Basileiro de
Geografia e Estatistica (Brazil), Departamento Administrativo Nacional de
Estadistica (Colombia), Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos
(Argentina), Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica (Peru),
Observatorio Urbano (Lima) and Ministerio de Desarrollo Urbano (Buenos
Aires) as well as individual Ministries, Departments and Secretariats for
each city, state and country. Complete data sources available at
Table of Contents
SOUTH AMERICAN CITIES:
FINE TUNING SOUTH AMERICAN CITIES.
THE SPECIALISED DIFFERENCES OF GLOBAL CITIES.
There is no such entity as ‘the global economy’ in the sense of a seamless economy with clear hierarchies.
The reality consists of a vast number of highly particular global circuits: some are specialised and some
are worldwide while others are regional. Different circuits contain different groups of countries and cities.
For instance, Mumbai is today part of a global circuit for real estate development that includes firms from cities as diverse as London and Bogotá.
Global commodity trading in coffee includes New York and São Paulo as major hubs. Buenos Aires is on a global
commodity trading circuit that includes Chicago and Mumbai. Globally traded commodities – gold, butter, coffee,
oil, sunflower seeds – are redistributed to a vast number of destinations, no matter how few the points of origin are in some cases.
And the current collapse of major financial institutions involves particular sets of global
circuits and hence does not affect all global cities in the same way.
BUILDING URBAN ASSETS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
POLITICS, POWER, CITIES.
There is not a scientifically or technically correct or incorrect way of making a city.
Defining what makes a good city is more a matter of heart and soul than of engineering.
It is more akin to an art than to a science. Yet, despite the subjective nature of urbanism,
a government must adopt a vision and promote it, make decisions, build, define rules and
enforce them – it must not only envision but also enact the city.
If a good city is society’s collective work of art, then its government acts as
the piece’s conductor and often its composer as well.
THE MOBILITY DNA OF CITIES.
CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE.
Seeing cities as ‘the problem’ draws attention away from the fact that the driver of most greenhouse gas emissions
is the consumption patterns of middle- and
upper-income groups in wealthier nations.
THE CHALLENGE OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN LATIN AMERICA.
FROM WASTE TO PUBLIC SPACE.
Just as Latin American urban centres have registered levels and paths of development different from those prevailing
in high-income nations, so too do their trajectories of emissions differ. Carbon emissions per capita in urban
areas such as Austin and the District of Columbia are 6 to 20 times higher than those in São Paulo,
Rio de Janeiro and Mexico City. This might lead many to the conclusion that Latin American cities
should not care about climate change, especially when they are faced with under-employment, housing
backlogs and other more pressing development concerns; when considering the wealthiest nations emit
most greenhouse gases it is the high-consumption lifestyles of the wealthy that drive climate change
and must, hence, take urgent actions to curb their emissions and avoid catastrophic and irreversible
damages. However, there are two sets of reasons here why urban centres in the region must pay attention
to this burgeoning global phenomenon: first, our cities are especially vulnerable to the impacts of
climate change, and are faced with the health impacts of atmospheric pollution; second, cities can
also play a pivotal role in our efforts both to cope with or adapt to heat waves, floods and other
climate hazards, and to reduce or mitigate the emissions of greenhouse gasses and other atmospheric pollutants.
SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT IN LATIN AMERICAN CITIES.
Georg Simmel would be both fascinated and alarmed.
The streets of Tepito are full of worshippers, upwards of 2,000 people moving excitedly in anticipation of seeing
and possibly touching La Grande, a lifesize statue of the Santa Muerte or saint of death.
Looking to all intents like the Grim Reaper, La Santa represents a ‘crisis religion’,
with devotees identified as the victims of the neo-liberal economy: she is popular among
drug addicts and dealers, former prisoners and gang members. Mingling in the crowds of
Tepito are heavily tattooed men, in every appearance hardcore gang members, except that they
are bringing their babies to La Grande, delicately placing
a cigarette at the baby’s lips to cast smoke over the shrine.
But La Santa’s supporters go beyond these stereotypes. A friend’s uncle, a millionaire businessman,
has replaced the conventional Virgin of Guadalupe altar in his house with one to La Santa.
At the Sonora market in La Merced,
the stallholders selling the statues – red for love, gold
for wealth, black for protection, and the powders for the devotions – claim a broad clientele.
In these times of economic uncertainty, of a state no longer willing to be associated with
terms such as ‘welfare’, with families split by the 20 million Mexicans living in the US,
everyone needs some form of social attachment.
URBAN AGE CITY DATA:
TOWARDS AN URBAN FUTURE
SOUTH AMERICAN CITIES
RIO DE JANEIRO
CITIES AND REGIONS
MOVING IN THE CITY
THE URBAN WORKFORCE
METROPOLITAN SCALE IN SÃO PAULO.
FOCUS ON SÃO PAULO:
URBAN AGE CITY SURVEY. Luci
Oliveira and Ben Page
NEW URBAN OPPORTUNITIES. Raul
THE MULTICULTURAL CITY. José
de Souza Martins
SÃO PAULO’S URBAN TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE.
MOBILITY AND THE URBAN POOR.
WORLDS SET APART. Teresa
SAFE SPACES IN SÃO PAULO.
IMPLEMENTING URBAN CHANGE.
Somekh and Carlos Leite
DEUTSCHE BANK URBAN AGE AWARD
URBAN AGE SOUTH AMERICA CONFERENCE PROGRAMME
URBAN AGE SOUTH AMERICA
In bringing the Urban Age to São Paulo, the London School of Economics and
Deutsche Bank’s Alfred Herrhausen Society are confronting the changing
realities of one of the most urbanised regions of the world. Like its seven
predecessors, the eighth Urban Age conference addresses the social, economic and
spatial conditions of urban South America through an interdisciplinary lens,
focusing on the interconnected issues of security, mobility, climate change,
governance, urban design and development.
Following in-depth analysis of New York, Shanghai, London, Mexico City,
Johannesburg and Berlin – brought together in The
Endless City book
published earlier this year – the Urban Age in 2007 turned its attention to
cities in India and now to São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Bogotá and
Lima. In 2009, the focus will be on Istanbul and urban development in
South-Eastern Europe, with a concluding Urban Summit and major exhibition in
Berlin in 2010.
The South America Urban Age conference in São Paulo will be the largest and
most complex of the series, bringing together 80 experts and civic leaders from
over 25 cities from 14 countries. It follows a year of research and a series of
workshops in London and São Paulo, as well as input drawn from submissions to
the second annual Deutsche Bank Urban Age Award, created in 2007 to recognise
and celebrate creative solutions to the challenges facing cities. Working
closely with academic and institutional partners and by inviting speakers from
around the world to share their urban experiences, the Urban Age conference
offers a mirror to reflect on São Paulo’s problems and opportunities at a
time of intense social, political and economic change.
Ricky Burdett - Director, Urban AgeLondon School of Economics and Political Science
Wolfgang Nowak - Managing DirectorAlfred Herrhausen Society Deutsche Bank