the Kenya Slum Upgrading Programme |
Kenya’s slums are growing at an unprecedented rate
as more and more people move to Kenya’s cities and
towns in search of employment and other opportunities
urban areas offer. The government and local authorities
are faced with the serious challenge of guiding
the physical growth of urban areas and providing
adequate services for the growing urban population.
Kenya’s urban population is at present 40 percent of
the total population. More than 70 percent of these
urbanites live in slums, with limited access to water
and sanitation, housing, and secure tenure. They have
poor environmental conditions and experience high
crime rates. If the gap continues to grow between the
supply and demand of urban services such as housing,
the negative consequences of urbanisation can
Read also Ghana:
Accra Urban Profile - 2009
- Contents - Introduction
The task of making slums better living and working
environments for the urban poor, along with the
inseparable task of reducing poverty, can only be
achieved through a common vision. And a common
vision for sustainable slum upgrading can only be
realised through genuine partnerships. We extend
our sincerest gratitude to the Government of Kenya
and our development partners, who have taken this
task to heart. We also invite you to be part of this coalition,
a coalition that can help strengthen the capacity
of the Government of Kenya, local authorities, local
communities, UN-HABITAT, and other partners in
addressing the pressing issue of slum upgrading.
1.1 Justification for the Strategy Document
1.2 Aims of the Strategy Document
1.3 Rationale for KENSUP
2.1 Government of Kenya’s KENSUP Strategy
2.2 Memorandum of Understanding between the
Government of Kenya and UN-HABITAT
2.3 KENSUP Update from the KENSUP Secretariat
3 KENSUP Projects
3.1 Main Areas of Focus
3.2 New Areas of Focus
3.3 Impact of UN-HABITAT’s Activities
4 UN-HABITAT’s New KENSUP Strategy
4.1 UN-HABITAT’s Mandate
4.3 Guiding Principles
4.4 UN-HABITAT, Partners and their Roles
4.5 Necessary Pre-Conditions for Success
4.5 Development Approach
4.6 Implementation Strategy & Methodology
4.7 Expected Results
4.8 Financing Strategy
5.1 Strategy Document, Project Document and
5.3 Relations with the Ministry of Housing
5.4 KENSUP Team
5.5 Other Partners
UN-HABITAT KENSUP Projects
Cities without Slums (CWS), Kisumu
Sustainable Neighbourhood Programme (SNP),
Kibera Slum Upgrading Initiative, Nairobi
Mombasa Slum Upgrading Programme
Kibera Integrated Water, Sanitation and Waste
Management Project, Nairobi
Youth Empowerment Programme, Kibera and
Kiandutu Slum Youth Project, Thika
Kahawa Soweto, Nairobi
Korogocho Slum Upgrading Programme, Nairobi
|World Development Report 2009 "Reshaping
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that contribute to (or detract from) successful
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Behar, Alberto. "
growth effects: an annual panel data approach."
Brülhart, Marius. "
Account of Global Intra-Industry Trade, 1962-2006."
This paper provides a comprehensive description of intra-industry trade patterns and trends, using
data on more than 39 million bilateral trade flows. In 2006, 27 percent of global trade was intraindustry
if measured at the finest (5-digit) level of statistical aggregation, and 44 percent if
measured at a coarser (3-digit) level of statistical aggregation. The observed steady growth in
global intra-industry trade since the early 1960s suggests a process of world-wide structural
convergence: economies are becoming more similar over time in terms of their sectoral
compositions. In particular since the 1990s, this trend appears to be driven to a significant extent
by the international fragmentation of vertical production chains. Intra-industry trade is a highincome
and middle-income country phenomenon: African trade remains overwhelmingly of the
inter-industry type. Moreover, the observed increase in intra-industry trade was not accompanied
by a comparable increase in marginal intra-industry trade, suggesting that trade-induced
adjustment pressures remain potentially important.
Calì, Massimiliano. "
inequality and economic growth: Evidence from Indian
The aim of this empirical work is to explore various possible implications
of the urbanisation process on development outcomes. I investigate these
issues in an intra-country rather than in a traditional cross-country
setting, using Indian states over the Post-Independence period and Indian
towns over the 21st century as the units of analysis. I exploit the
richness of contexts within the Indian sub-continent, controlling for
many of those countries’ unobservables that undermine the robustness
of inferences from cross-countries studies.
India has a number of features that make it particularly amenable to this type
of empirical verification. First, it is a federal country composed of several
states with a fairly high degree of political autonomy, which allows for some
state-wise variability in policy variables.
Second, the size of the major states is similar in terms of both population
and geographical extension to that of medium-large countries.
Clemens, Michael, C. Montenegro, and L. Pritchett.
Place Premium: Wage Differences for Identical Workers
accross US Borders."
Coulibaly, Souleymane. "
the Complementarity of Regional and Global Trade."
Crafts, Nicholas. "
Growth in the Age of Regional Economic Integration:
Convergence Big Time?"
Hewings, Geoffrey J.D., Edward Feser, and Ken Poole.
Development Policies in the United States."
Hirotsugu, Uchida and Andrew Nelson. "
Index: Towards a New Measure of Urban Concentration."
A common challenge in analyzing urbanization is the data. The United Nations compiles
information on urbanization (urban population and its share of total national
population) that is reported by various countries but there is no standardized
definition of “urban,” resulting in inconsistencies. This situation is
particularly troublesome if one wishes to conduct a cross-country analysis or
determine the aggregate urbanization status of the regions (such as Asia or
Latin America) and the world. This paper proposes an alternative measure of
urban concentration that we call an agglomeration index. It is based on
three factors: population density, the population of a “large” urban center,
and travel time to that large urban center. The main objective in constructing
this new measure is to provide a globally consistent definition of settlement
concentration to conduct cross-country comparative and aggregated analyses
in the same way that the $1 per day poverty line is used in poverty issues-related
studies. As an accessible measure of economic density, the agglomeration
index lends itself to the study of concepts such as agglomeration rents
in urban areas, the “thickness” of a market, and the travel distance to
such a market with many workers and consumers. With anticipated advances
in remote sensing technology and geo-coded data analysis tools, the
agglomeration index can be further refined to address some of the caveats
currently associated with it.
Kilroy, Austin. "
spatial inequalities: cities as ‘urban regions.’"- 2007
This section gives an overview of the forces and characteristics of intra-urban spatial
inequalities, before the subsequent main section examines the mechanisms by which
they have significance for economic development.
Spatial inequalities within urban areas are a natural consequence of income inequalities
between households. Standard urban economic theory explains the spatial patterning of cities
in term of bid-rent curves and other models of location decisions. These mechanisms give
rise to the predominant clustering of residences by income, with those locations determined
according to the desirability of residence location and households’ abilities to afford
land in that location. Until the 20th century—in the era before motorised transport—the
costs of intra-urban communication encouraged the concentration of residences, services
and even light manufacturing in the centres of cities.
Kilroy Austin. "
role of cities in post-war economic recovery."
Eighty percent of the world’s twenty poorest countries have experienced a major war in the last fifteen years1,
and civil war has reversed development in many other developing countries. On one hand, spatial
inequalities—particularly territorial inequalities—have been found to be a significant determinant
of the onset of war2; but on the other hand, urban economies appear often to play a key role
in recovery after war. This section surveys evidence on the economic role of cities
in generating post-conflict recovery.
Kroehnert, S. and S. Vollmer. "
Have All The Young Women Gone?: Gender-Specific
Migration from East to West Germany."
Lall, Somik, Christopher Timmins, and Shouyue Yu.
to Opportunity: Successful Integration or Bright
Manners, P. and A. Behar. "
in sub-Saharan Africa and opportunities for Low Income
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Potential and Development: A background paper for the
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Montenegro, Claudio E., and Maximilian L. Hirn.
New Disaggregated Set of Labor Market Indicators using
Standardized Household Surverys from Around the World."
Nelson, B. and A. Behar. "
Resources, Growth and Spatially-Based Development: A
View of The Literature."
Satterthwhaite, David. "
the supply and reducing the cost of land for housing
in urban areas in low- and middle-income nations."
te Velde, Dirk William. "
integration, growth and concentration."
Treyvish, Andrey. "
Downfall of the Soviet Union: A Spatial Explanation."
Vollmer, Sebastian, Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso,
Felicitas Nowak-Lehmann D. and Nils-Hendrik Klann.
Economic Partnership Agreements – Empirical Evidence
for Sub-Saharan Africa."