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The Shift Towards Services

WIR04 presents the latest trends in foreign direct investment and explores the shift towards services, with a special analysis of offshoring service activities.
Part One discusses recent global and regional trends in FDI and international production by TNCs. Global FDI flows bottomed out in 2003, but there were some regional differences. The sectoral pattern of FDI is shifting towards services. Outward FDI from developing countries is becoming significant. There is also optimism that inflows to these countries will increase in 2004 and beyond.
Part Two deals with FDI in services - an important but often neglected area of FDI in the context of development. It examines the shift of FDI towards services with a focus on the entry of TNCs into new service areas. Services FDI, especially in intermediate and infrastructure services, affects the economic performance of a host-country in all sectors. The offshoring of corporate services is taking off rapidly, thanks to advances in information and communications technologies. However, the potential of such offshoring can only be harnessed if countries adopt appropriate policies.
Part Three analyses key issues relating to national and international policies on FDI in services. As many services are deeply embedded in the social, cultural and political fabric of host societies, the impact of FDI on those services could be far-reaching. Therefore, national policies matter - not only to attract FDI in services, but also to maximize its benefits and minimize its potential negative impacts. The proliferation of international investment agreements (IIAs) covering FDI in services has resulted in a multifaceted and multilayered network of international rules that affect national policy-making.
The WIR04 includes a substantial statistical annex, which is also available on CD-ROM.

Quick Links: | World Investment Directory Online |

Table of contents - Preface - Acknowledgements - Abbreviations
Overview [PDF, 17pp., 121KB]
Part One
FDI Set To Recover

Chapter 1 [PDF, 38pp., 1483KB]
Global FDI growth set to resume
A. FDI inflows down again - but recovery is on its way
B. Outward FDI from developing countries is becoming important
C. Changing sectoral distribution
D. Prospects: growth set to resume
Annex to chapter I. How transnational are TNCs?
Chapter II [PDF, 55pp., 1884KB]
Regional FDI Trends: A Mixed Picture
A. Developing Countries
B. Central and Eastern Europe: awaiting the boom
C. Developed Countries: the decline continues, but prospects are good
Part Two
The Shift Towards Services

Chapter III [PDF, 54pp., 350KB]
The Growth of FDI in Services and its implications
A. Changing patterns of FDI in services
B. Players and driving forces
C. Impact on host countries
Annex to chapter III. What are services: Classifying invisibles.
Chapter IV [PDF, 35pp., 357KB]
The offshoring of corporate service functions: the next global shift?
A. The tradability revolution
B. Future prospects for the offshoring of services
C. Outsourcing vs. captive business models
D. Search for competitiveness drives corporate offshoring
E. Impact on host countries
F. Implications for home countries
Part Three
National and International Policy Challenges

Chapter V [PDF, 36pp., 367KB]
National Policies
A. Host-country policies on services are key to development gains
B. Home countries: the challenge of adapting
C. Conclusions
Chapter VI [PDF, 22pp., 214KB]
National and International Policies: A Complex and Dynamic Interaction
A. The growing multifaceted network of services IIAs
B. Complexities and challenges
C. National and international policies: a complex and dynamic interaction
D. Conclusion: striking a development-oriented balance
Annexes [PDF, 162pp., 1617KB]
Questionnaire [PDF, 2pp., 25KB]
Full Report (One file) [PDF, 468pp., 4848KB]

Book information:
UN Symbol: UNCTAD/WIR/2004 & CD-ROM
Sales no.: E.04.II.D.36
Date of publication: 22/09/04
ISBN: 92-1-112647-9
No. of pages: 468
US$ 75 (Developed countries)
US$ 30 (Developing countries)
To order: Order form

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