Make your work easier and more efficient installing the rrojasdatabank  toolbar ( you can customize it ) in your browser. 
Counter visits from more than 160  countries and 1400 universities (details)

The political economy of development
This academic site promotes excellence in teaching and researching economics and development, and the advancing of describing, understanding, explaining and theorizing.
About us- Castellano- Français - Dedication
Home- Themes- Reports- Statistics/Search- Lecture notes/News- People's Century- Puro Chile- Mapuche

World indicators on the environmentWorld Energy Statistics - Time SeriesEconomic inequality
The Progress of Nations 1997

The day will come  when nations will be judged  not by their
military or economic strength,  nor by the splendour of
their capital  cities and public buildings,  but by the
well-being of their peoples:  by their levels of health,
nutrition and education; by their opportunities to earn a
fair reward for their labours; by their ability to
participate in the decisions that affect their lives; by the
respect that is shown for their civil and political
liberties;  by the provision that is made for those who are
vulnerable and disadvantaged;  and by the protection that is
afforded to the  growing minds and bodies of their children.
The Progress of Nations, published annually  by the United
Nations Childrens Fund, is  a contribution towards that day.

                           * * * *

1. Foreword by Kofi A. Anan, Secretary-General United Nations

2. Charting progress for children:  Introduction by Carol Bellamy,
   UNICEF Executive Director

3. Water and Sanitation
   Commentary - The Sanitation gap: Development's deadly menace
   3.1 Sanitation League Table
   3.2 Water/sanitation gap widening
   3.3 79% of all guinea worm cases occurring in Sudan
   3.4 Grading school sanitation: Few high marks
   3.5 Making ORT a household habit

4. Nutrition 
   Commentary - Putting babies before business
   4.1 Nutrition League Table
   4.2 Exclusive breastfeeding: A chance for survival
   4.3 One in five babies too small at birth
   4.4 Stunting: A scar and a wound
   4.5 Slow starters catching up in salt iodization

5. Health
   Commentary - Fighting AIDS together
   5.1 Gauging AIDS' terrible toll
   5.2 Health League Table
   5.3 Pneumonia: K=Little progress on a big killer
   5.4 52 countries falling short on immunization goal for DPT
   5.5 Neonatal deaths: 5 million each year
   5.6 Malaria's death toll: A child every 30 seconds

6. Education
   Commentary - Quality education: One answer for many
   6.1 Doing more with less
   6.2 Girls' education: Commitment or neglect?
   6.3 Maths and science: Some developing countries score high
   6.4 Do teachers make the grade?
   6.5 Rural kids short-changed

7. Women
   Commentary - The intolerable status quo: Violence against
                women and girls
   7.1 Women's League Table
   7.2 Outlawing violence against women: A first step
   7.3 Risk of death in childbirth can be as high as 1 in 7
   7.4 A bill of rights for women, but with reservations
   7.5 Help wanted: Skilled birth attendants

8. Special Protections
   Commentary - No age of innocence: Justice for children
   8.1 Old enough to be a criminal?
   8.2 Over 7 million children are refugees
   8.3 Hidden killers
   8.4 The cost of war: Billions for development diverted to

9. Industrialized Countries
   Commentary - Healthy cities, healthy children
   9.1 Youth unemployment rate highest in Spain, lowest in Austria
       and Switzerland
   9.2 Teens at risk: Drinking and bullying
   9.3 Sharing the wealth? Aid at lowest level in 45 years

10 Statistical Tables
    Social Indicators for Less Populous Countries

   Statistical Profiles for 149 countries
    The age of the data
    Statistical tables are available at the UNICEF website
                      * * * *

9-Industrialized Countries

Healthy cities, healthy children

Leonard Duhl and Trevor Hancock

Economic development has brought comfort and convenience
to many people in the industrialized world, but in its
wake are pollution, new health problems, blighted urban
landscapes and social isolation. Growing numbers of the
dispossessed are also being left on the sidelines as the
disparity between rich and poor grows. In an effort to
remedy these ills, people from disparate backgrounds in
thousands of communities are joining together with
government agencies under the Healthy Cities/Healthy
Communities banner to improve the quality of life in their
towns and cities.  

Life is vastly easier in the industrialized world than it
was 150 years ago. Most people live longer, eat more and
work less. Many live in private homes and drive to work
alone in their own cars. Office workers communicate
instantaneously across continents through telephone, fax
and e-mail. Industries crank out new goods faster than
people can buy them in ever-bigger shopping malls. 

But the advantages of modern life are not available to
everyone, nor do they come without a price: new kinds of
health problems, many caused by our own bad habits or by
the dirty air and water left behind by industries; the
loss of parkland as highways devour open space; declining
literacy as television beats teachers in the competition
for children's attention; cadres of unemployed and
homeless people overlooked by the free market system; and
sprawling, desolate suburbs where neighbours are strangers
and fear of crime isolates people behind locked doors.

Added to these is the disinvestment in services and
physical infrastructure over the past 15 years, which has
hit urban dwellers - especially poor urban dwellers - the
hardest. The cuts in government spending for social
programmes are all the more stark when viewed in the
context of a world with a widening gap between rich and
poor. The fraying of social safety nets, most severe in
the United States, has increased the percentage of
children under 6 living in poverty from 20 per cent of US
children  in 1980 to 24 per cent in 1995. Without
addressing these fundamental inequalities, programmes
developed to mend worsening urban conditions will be
unable to secure long-lasting solutions.

Even when government agencies and private organizations
have the economic means and political will to address
these ills, the typical approach is fragmented and
specialized: A programme is created to fix a problem. A
clinic is opened to treat disease, ignoring the fact that
good health is much more than the absence of illness.
Schools are upgraded, but the curriculum ignores lessons
learned on the streets and in the media, which set the
patterns for children's beliefs and 

There is a better way. It is rooted in the simple but
revolutionary idea that health is less about medical care
than about equitable access to such basic prerequisites of
health as food, shelter, transportation, clean air and
water, education, physical safety and meaningful jobs
paying sufficient wages. This way of thinking expands on
the idea that no person or family is an island; everyone's
life is bound up in the whole community.     

Quality of life

Ask people to imagine their ideal community and what they
describe is a modern version of a 19th century European
market town: a place that is built to human scale; small
and compact yet technologically and ecologically
sophisticated; where all the activities of daily life are
located within walking distance; where the absence of cars
means that children can play safely and people can greet
their neighbours while strolling on the sidewalk; and
where trees and grass and flowers are plentiful.

The message is obvious: What people want is quality of
life. They want their children to be healthy and happy and
safe, they want to work close to home at meaningful jobs
for which they are fairly compensated, they want to have
time for recreation and learning. Most of all, they want
human connections. What people are describing when they
talk about their ideal town or city is a healthy
community. Not very many exist - yet. But for more than 10
years now, a movement called 'Healthy Cities/Healthy
Communities' has been helping communities to cure their
ills - or better yet, to prevent them. 

The movement emerged from the concerns of people in
diverse countries about the deterioration of their
communities. It was sparked in 1984 by a one-day workshop 
- healthy Toronto 2000 - organized in conjunction with a
conference on healthy public policy. There, staff from the
World Health Organization (WHO) recognized an opportunity
to put health promotion concepts into practice in Europe.
Two years later, Healthy Cities projects were initiated in
11 European cities.

Municipalities in at least 50 countries were participating
by 1996, when WHO chose Healthy Cities as the theme for
its annual World Health Day. To date, participating
communities number in the thousands worldwide.

Given current trends, nothing could be more important than
an initiative aimed at improving the quality of life and
health in cities. By the year 2000, almost half the
world's population will live in and around urban areas. In
the industrialized countries, growth is increasingly
taking place in suburban areas, which puts even more
demands on transportation, housing and other services
because of the suburbs' dispersion and low population
density. For children, especially in neighbourhoods left
behind by economic progress, Healthy Cities/ Healthy
Communities is a tool for fulfilling the rights pledged in
the Convention on the Rights of the Child - among them,
the right to health care, to education and to housing, as
well as the right to play and to participate in society. 

Creating a healthy city

A healthy city is not a finished product created at one
point in time; it is a dynamic place where citizens and
government have established relationships and processes
that allow them to collaborate in tackling any problems
that arise. The healthy city approach calls for collective
action, in which all the sectors - local government as
well as community, religious and other groups and
individual citizens - work together for a common purpose.
A healthy city is also sensitive to gender, working to
eliminate the discrimination that women face in access to
housing, services and jobs.

The role of local government is too often overlooked. Yet
in analysing health improvements in the city of Oxford
(UK) in the past 200 years, public health physician Jessie
Parfitt wrote: "Many would be surprised to learn that the
greatest contribution to the health of the nation over the
past 150 years was made not by doctors or hospitals but by
local government."
Municipal governments are involved in making decisions
about urban planning, public works, housing, fire and
police protection, education, public health,
transportation and a whole host of other issues that have,
cumulatively, far more impact on the well-being of their
citizens than do health care services. Ensuring that local
officials take health into account in making decisions is
an important part of the process of creating healthier
cities and communities.

People tend to view needs as endless and resources as few.
But resources are greater than anyone at first imagines,
and discovering that fact makes people realize how much
power they have to address their most pressing problems.
Every community has individuals who are ready and willing
to contribute their un-tapped, if not professional, skills
- entrepreneurial, political and managerial. 

While no city can claim to have achieved the ideal,
Horsens (Denmark), one of the first cities in the WHO
Europe project, comes close. With initial leadership from
local government staff and politicians, this community of
70,000 people has made the healthy city approach integral
to its way of working and to municipal decision-making.
Representatives from all municipal departments make up a
Healthy City Group chaired by a full-time coordinator. At
a Healthy City Shop, people come together to work on
myriad problems ranging from environmental clean-ups to
closer integration of immigrants into the life of the
city. So successful is the approach that a joint
public/private sector partnership has established a
consulting group to advise others on how to create
healthier cities.

The Healthy Communities banner is guiding similar efforts
in many other cities. In 1990, the City Council and the
residents of Parksville (Canada) developed a process to
involve all parts of the community in defining a set of
shared values and writing a plan based on them. The values
statement developed by the citizens of Parksville, a
rapidly growing community of 10,000 people in British
Columbia, emphasizes environmental quality, maintenance of
a small-town atmosphere, economic vitality, equal access
to a range of human services and amenities, affordable
public transportation and an ongoing forum for citizens to
express opinions on local issues. These values have been
integrated into a decision-making checklist that is
applied to new construction. 

The Healthy Community process has now also been used as
the framework for developing a strategic plan for
Parksville. This effort resulted in the creation of a
Healthy Community Advisory Commission and a new
organizational design for local government. Five
committees, staffed by over 100 volunteers, are working in
areas such as economic development, environment, housing,
transportation and access for people with disabilities. 

Children's role

Children are a crucial part of a healthy city's life and
growth. Without their participation, the community is not
fully represented. Too often, lip-service is given to
children's needs, but in a healthy city, young people are
part of civic life. They express opinions and take part in
neighbourhood projects.  

In Rouyn-Noranda, a city of 30,000 in Quebec (Canada),
5,000 young people were asked in 1987 to describe what
their town would be like in the future if it were more
healthy. Their ideas formed the basis of a youth agenda,
presented to the City Council, which has helped to shape
the city's activities for a number of years. 

Among the agenda's initiatives were a programme of
activities to highlight accomplishments by young people
and steps to reduce emissions of acids and heavy metals
from the smelter that is the economic lifeblood of the
region. During a community forum in June 1996, a second
round of projects was adopted, including plans for
neighbourhood justice circles for youth and a strategy to
reduce poverty.

Healthy Cities has been active in Oakland, California (US)
since 1993. Even before that, the city worked in
partnership with the county administration to promote the
health and well-being of its residents. In several Oakland
neighbourhoods, the infant death rate used to be as high
as in some developing countries - more than 20 deaths per
1,000 live births. Public health officials had undertaken
the usual measures: more prenatal care, nutrition
programmes, counselling of mothers. But these actions had
negligible effect. Community members formed a coalition to
work on the problem. 

That effort led to the establishment in the early 1990s of
a series of coalitions of diverse people addressing issues
of education, housing, economic development, security and
law enforcement. At one meeting, when the discussion
turned to infant mortality, representatives of some
coalitions started to leave, because they felt their
mandate was unrelated. Persuaded to stay, they began to
see that the infant death rate is an issue not just of
health but also of poverty, adolescence, education,
housing and transportation. 

Four years later, the rate in the neighbourhoods had
dropped by half, the first decline in 25 years - because
people began to address infant deaths not only as a
medical problem but also as a community problem.
Collaboration between agencies improved and the city won a
federal grant aimed at reducing infant mortality. In
addition, through the coalition process, the word spread
about services that had been available all along, so more
pregnant women began to take advantage of them.  

Healthy Cities raised awareness among Oakland    s
residents of the importance of investing in children's
well-being. In 1996, Oakland passed a 12-year budget bill
appropriating 2.5 per cent of the city's budget to
children's needs. Children were a major force in getting
this legislation passed, and they are participating in
deciding how to allocate funds.

In Milan (Italy), an Urban Child Project began in 1989,
with UNICEF backing, to work on improving the quality of
life for children, with an emphasis on their right to
participation. A well-to-do city, Milan nonetheless
suffers from the range of modern social ills, including
poverty, crime and unequal access to community services.
Research undertaken when the project began found little
coordination among the many institutions dealing with
children's issues. Information about young people's needs
was disjointed, and there was no systematic monitoring of

In 1994, Milan established a Council for Child Well-being
to oversee plans for children    s programmes, monitor
fulfilment of child rights and assist in coordinating
municipal resources. Two pilot projects were begun in 1995
to help social workers access services more efficiently,
renew urban areas and encourage the participation of
children and local communities.

Many benefits have resulted. Resources for services were
surveyed, resulting in development of a map, called
'Friendly spaces for us', which was widely distributed.
Children, assisted by facilitators, surveyed their
neighbourhoods and prepared plans for improving them,
complete with designs and models. They have carried out
projects to improve parks and courtyards with the help of
local artisans and municipal technicians. 

More than 3,000 children have participated in Milan's
healthy cities' activities, and the project is expanding
to three additional neighbourhoods. The total population
now benefiting is about 300,000.

Children in Seattle, Washington (US), similarly got
involved in improving their environment through Kid's
Place. It was initiated in 1983 by a retired paediatrician
so that young people would have somewhere to go for
recreation other than shopping malls. 

The first activity, developed by children with some adult
help, was a simple questionnaire asking children about
places in their community - the cleanest place, the
happiest place, the most unsafe, the most stimulating. 

With this survey, the children identified dangerous
intersections, polluted areas, good schools and safe areas
- all without an expensive study. They pointed out that
public transport did not take them where they wanted to go
because it was developed to carry adults to and from work.
The Mayor, impressed by their effort, asked them to
suggest changes in the bus routes. The routes were
changed, the children's needs were met and the buses made
more money. Seattle has now developed a city-wide policy
for children and youth.

Kid's Place and similar programmes are now active in many
cities in Europe, Japan and North America. The results
have included new parks and play areas, pedestrian
bridges, neighbourhood centres and clinics for
adolescents. Young people have won approval for midnight
basketball games and have persuaded principals to keep
schools open late so they can be used for recreation.

These efforts have in common the participation of citizens
in deciding the community's priorities and working to
achieve them. A healthy community is dynamic. It has the
capacity to change with the times and with the needs of
its citizens. But they cannot do it alone. Only when
governments join with residents in willing partnership can
urban areas become responsive to the needs and rights of
all their inhabitants, young and old, poor and rich. These
efforts require political will and new forms of democratic
and participatory governance reoriented towards social

As we enter the urban millennium, when the majority of the
world's children will be born and raised in cities, the
health and well-being of young people and of future
generations will depend upon our ability to create
healthier cities and communities. The progress of nations
will thus be closely tied to the progress of cities.   

                        # # # # #

Leonard Duhl, M.D., and Trevor Hancock, M.B., B.S., were
founders of the Healthy Cities/Healthy Communities
Movement. Dr. Duhl is founding director of the
International Healthy Cities Foundation. He is also
professor of public health and urban planning and of
psychiatry at the University of California at Berkeley.
His major area of work is healthy cities, and he consults
extensively with governments and international agencies to
aid the process of developing them. Earlier, Dr. Duhl was
chief of planning for the National Institute of Mental
Health (US), where he participated in the development of
the Peace Corps.

Dr. Hancock is a public health physician and health
promotion consultant, in recent years emphasizing healthy
cities/communities. He works for local communities,
provincial and national governments, health care
organizations and the World Health Organization. He has
been consulted on healthy city/community projects in
several countries, notably Sweden and the US, as well as
throughout Canada. Dr. Hancock was a family physician
prior to becoming an Associate Medical Office of Health
for the City of Toronto, where he helped initiate the
Healthy Cities movement.

Industrialized Countries
Progress and Disparity

Youth unemployment rate highest in Spain, lowest in Austria
and Switzerland

In Spain, more than 40% of young people age 24 and under who
are looking for work fail to find it. At the other end of
the scale, in Austria and Switzerland, the youth
unemployment rate is only 6%.

More than a quarter of the  22  industrialized countries
providing information have youth unemployment rates above
20%. In 10 of the countries, female unemployment rates are
higher than those of males, while in 8 countries, young men
have a harder time finding jobs than young women.

The data include only those young people of a specified age,
usually 15 through 24, who are looking for work. A country's
youth unemployment rate is the number of youth seeking
employment as a percentage of the total number of working
and work-seeking youth. In every country, the youth
unemployment rate is higher than the total unemployment

The Convention on the Rights of the Child calls for
countries to set minimum ages for employment, regulate
conditions of work and protect children from work that
threatens their health, education or development (article
32). The International Labour Organizations general minimum
age of 15 years (provided this is not less than the age of
completion of compulsory schooling) is the most widely used

Youth unemployment results in social and economic trauma at
a personal, community and national level. For young people,
work is more than earning an income: It is a critical phase
in the transition from dependent childhood to independent
adulthood and a source of emotional and social well-being.
Although the links between youth employment and crime are
tenuous, research affirms the association between
unemployment and a decline in psychological health.

While the phenomenon is disturbing, it is not new: 10 years
ago, youth unemployment rates varied from 5% to 48% in
industrialized countries; today, they vary from 6% to 43%.
By seeking solutions to the problem - such as promoting ways
to combine education and work - countries can address labour
markets ever increasing demand for higher skills and the
best interests of young people.

                 Youth unemployment rates
              Unemployed youth age 24 and below

              % unemployed        
              male    female      total    

Spain            37     51         43 
Finland          32     36         34 
Italy            29     39         34 
France           26     32         29 
Greece           20     37         28 
Belgium          19     27         22
Sweden           22     22         22 
Ireland          18     16         17 
Australia        17     16         16 
Canada           19     14         16    
Portugal         13     20         16 
New Zealand      16     14         15 
United Kingdom   16     11         14 
United States    13     11         12 
Germany          11      9         10 
Netherlands       9     11         10 
Norway           11      9         10 
Luxembourg        8      8          8 
Denmark           6      9          7 
Japan             7      7          7 
Austria           4      7          6 
Switzerland       6      6          6 
Source: Eurostat news release no. 3/97, 1997;OECD, OECD in
Figures, 1996.

Industrialized Countries
Progess and Disparity

Teens at risk: Drinking and bullying

Millions of adolescents in some of the wealthiest countries
in the world are seriously affected by alcohol abuse and
bullying - behaviours that compromise their health and limit
their chances to become successful adults. Both alcohol
abuse and bullying, found at high levels in a number of
industrialized countries, according to a WHO youth health
survey, are associated with alienation from school and home,
as well as low academic achievement. Boys are at higher risk
than girls.

In the countries surveyed, the highest levels of alcohol
abuse among both boys and girls are found in Denmark. Danish
girls have the highest levels of all: 67%. Denmark is the
only country where girls have a higher rate of alcohol abuse
than boys. In 14 countries or regions within countries where
15-year-olds were asked about their experience with alcohol,
more than one third of boys reported being drunk two or more

Teens who misuse alcohol are more likely to develop health
problems and die prematurely. While the increased risk is
partly the result of the direct effects of excessive alcohol
consumption - liver disease, depression, road accidents - it
is also due to the link between drinking and other high-risk
behaviours, such as smoking and violence.  

Bullying - which includes physical contact or verbal abuse -
is also associated with such high-risk behaviours as
drinking to excess and smoking. The variation in the amount
of bullying occurring among 15-year-olds is striking.
Germany has the highest rates: 86% of boys and 72% of girls
reported bullying others at least once in the past school
term. In Wales, the rates dropped to 28% of boys and 13% of

More than half of boys and girls in Austria, Belgium
(Wallonia), Denmark and Lithuania reported engaging in
bullying. The behaviour, however, is considerably less
frequent among girls than boys.

Alcohol abuse
Percentage of 15-year old students who had 2 or more
episodes of drunkenness

                              %       %
                             male    female

Denmark                        65     67 
UK (Wales)                     61     59 
UK (Scotland)                  53     51 
Finland                        52     50 
Austria                        46     30 
Denmark (Greenland)            46     46 
Slovakia                       46     20 
UK (N. Ireland)                44     36 
Canada                         39     38 
Hungary                        37     20 
Czech Rep.                     36     19 
Latvia                         35     21 
Germany*                       34     26 
Poland                         34     18 
Belgium (Flanders)             31     16 
Norway                         30     29 
Belgium (Wallonia)             27     20 
Lithuania                      27     17 
Sweden                         27     22 
Estonia                        26     10 
France*                        24     13 
Spain                          23     19 
Switzerland                    22     13 
Russian Fed.*                  21     12 
Israel                          8      6 

Percentage of 15-year-old students who took part in bullying
others at least once in the previous school term

                              %       %
                             male    female    

Germany*                       86     72 
Austria                        78     59 
Denmark                        75     53
Lithuania                      73     53
Belgium (Wallonia)             70     56 
Denmark (Greenland)            64     40 
Estonia                        64     32
Belgium (Flanders)             62     34 
Israel                         57     25 
Finland                        56     26 
Norway                         56     19
Latvia                         54     36 
France*                        49     39 
Russian Fed.*                  46     35    
Canada                         42     23 
Switzerland                    42     13 
Hungary                        40     18 
Czech Rep.                     39     23 
Slovakia                       35     16 
UK (Scotland)                  34     16 
Poland                         32     14 
Sweden                         32     12 
UK (N. Ireland)                29     10 
UK (Wales)                     28     13    

*France, Germany and the Russian Fed. are represented only
by areas.

Source: A. King, B. Wold, C. Tudor-Smith, and Y. Harel, The
Health of Youth: A Cross-National Survey, WHO Regional
Publications, European Series No. 69, 1996. (Surveys
undertaken 1993/94.)

Industrialized Countries
Progress and Disparity

Sharing the wealth? Aid at lowest level in 45 years

Official development assistance (ODA) from the
industrialized countries is in the doldrums, slumping to an
average of just 0.27% of their combined GNP, the lowest
level since aid statistics were first collected in 1950. The
US gave the lowest portion of its GNP for aid: 0.10% in
1995, the latest year for which figures are available. In
contrast, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden all
allocated more than 0.7% of their GNP for development
assistance, the international target agreed upon in 1969.
Denmark tops the list, earmarking 1.04%.

In absolute dollars, Japan gave the most aid ($14.5
billion), almost double that of the US ($7.4 billion). The
US dropped to fourth place from first place in 1990, when it
gave $11.4 billion in aid. However, together with France and
Germany, these four countries accounted for more than three
fifths of the total $59 billion in aid provided by 21
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) donors in 1995. 

On the amount of aid per person, however, Denmark heads the
list, giving $311 per capita. Three countries - Italy,
Portugal and the US - gave $28, the lowest amount per

Though private investments and loans flowing to developing
countries have surged, tripling from $52 billion in 1990 to
$159 billion in 1995, most have gone to a dozen or so
emerging economies, including China, Mexico and the Republic
of Korea. The poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan
Africa, have received hardly any private loans or
investment. Aid is crucial for these countries in combating
poverty, repaying debt, supporting investment and financing
social services.

A glimmer of hope in the disquieting aid picture is the
evidence of a shift in aid allocations towards social
sectors. This trend gains further impetus from the 20/20
initiative, supported by UNDP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNICEF and

The initiative calls for allocating 20% of aid and 20% of
developing countries  budgets for basic social services -
primary health care, including reproductive health and
family planning, nutrition, basic education and safe
drinking water supply and sanitation. These services are the
foundation for sustainable human development. 

                Sharing the wealth...or not
                ODA as % of donor nations' GNP

                           % 1995    % 1990    

Denmark                     1.04      1.03 
Norway                      0.92      1.23
Netherlands                 0.87      0.98 
Sweden                      0.82      0.99 
France                      0.58      0.65 
Belgium                     0.41      0.57 
Luxembourg                  0.39      0.23 
Finland                     0.37      0.65 
Switzerland                 0.37      0.34 
Australia                   0.36      0.33 
Canada                      0.36      0.43 
Austria                     0.35      0.27 
Germany                     0.34      0.36 
Ireland                     0.29      0.17 
Japan                       0.29      0.29 
United Kingdom              0.29      0.28    
Portugal                    0.28      0.31    
Spain                       0.25      0.22    
New Zealand                 0.24      0.22    
Italy                       0.15      0.35    
United States               0.10      0.21    
Average                     0.27      0.34

Source: OECD, Development Corporation (1996 Report), 1997

                   Total aid    Aid per    Change per
                  ($ billions)  person ($)  person ($)
                      1995       1995       since 1992*    

Japan                 14.5       116           -5    
France                 8.4       145          -15
Germany                7.5        92           -9
United States          7.4        28          -18 
Netherlands            3.2       208           -2 
UK                     3.2        54            1
Canada                 2.1        70          -14
Sweden                 1.7       194          -59
Denmark                1.6       311            8
Italy                  1.6        28          -33
Spain                  1.3        34           -2 
Australia              1.2        67            6
Norway                 1.2       287           -8
Switzerland            1.1       151          -59
Belgium                1.0       102            2
Austria                0.8        95           15
Finland                0.4        76          -68
Portugal               0.3        28           -6
Ireland                0.2        43           30
Luxembourg             0.1       160           58
New Zealand            0.1        35           -1
Total                $58.9  Avg. $72         -$13

*Changes are based on constant prices and exchange rates.


Back to Top      Section 8  Section 7   Section 6 Section 5
                 Section 4  Section 3  Section 2   Section 1