Counter visits from more than 160  countries and 1400 universities (details)

The political economy of development
This academic site promotes excellence in teaching and researching economics and development, and the advancing of describing, understanding, explaining and theorizing.
About us- Castellano- Français - Dedication
Home- Themes- Reports- Statistics/Search- Lecture notes/News- People's Century- Puro Chile- Mapuche

Popular Unity: alternative development model Unidad Popular: un modelo de desarrollo alternativo
Editor: Róbinson Rojas Sandford
Salvador Allende - 4th December 1972
Speech to the UN General Assembly,

The Chilean president, Salvador Allende, delivered a dramatic speech to the UN General Assembly, in New York, on 4 December 1972, exposing U.S. transnational corporations, the U.S. government and other centres for international capital, and the Chilean oligarchy, as being engaged in bringing Chile to the brink of civil war by an economic blockade that deprived his Government of the commercial credits and financial help needed to keep it going. Nine months later, 11 September 1973, the Chilean president was assassinated by the army (the coup d'etat was supported by U.S. transnational corporations, the U.S. government and other centres for international capital, and the Chilean oligarchy) and thus the Chilean democratic system was replaced by a brutal right-wing military junta which ruled Chile until 1990, when the Army step aside giving way to a "guarded democracy". ( To examine this period in depth, read R. Rojas, "The Murder of Allende and the end of the Chilean way to socialism", Harper&Row, New York, 1975)

Chile - 1969
The Popular Unity's Programme (Alternative Development)

The following is the political programme presented by a coalition of six Chilean political parties led by the Socialist Party and the Communist Party to the presidential election in 1970. The presidential candidate was Salvador Allende. The coalition won the presidential election. Salvador Allende became president. After 34 months of conspiracies, terrorism, and criminal activities led by the Chilean capitalist class through their political parties, the Chilean generals (led by Pinochet, Merino, Leigh and Mendoza), and supported by the U.S. Government and its main criminal agencies, the C.I.A. and the Pentagon, succeeded in murdering Salvador Allende and bringing the Chilean working class to its knees through the systematic use of political assassinations and torture, opening the way to larger profits for transnational corporations and the Chilean oligarchy ( For an account of this period read my book "The Murder of Allende and the of the Chilean way to socialism", Harper&Row, N.Y, 1975).
This political programme, in 1970, represented an alternative way for development, based on ECONOMIC GROWTH WITH EQUAL ACCESS TO ECONOMIC RESOURCES AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT WITH EQUAL ACCESS TO POLITICAL RESOURCES for the Chilean population. Students of development should take a close look to this text, because, today, more than thirty years since the murderers led by the White House and the Chilean generals killed Salvador Allende, still is a valid and consistent "programme for sustainable development" alternative to the capitalist model which exclude a large portion of society from the fruits of economic growth, and which also unleashes environmental destruction and unhuman development.
(Róbinson Rojas, 2003)

U.S. Senate - 18 December 1975
Covert Action in Chile 1963-1973

"Covert United States involvement in Chile in the decade between 1963 and 1973 was extensive and continuous. The Central Intelligence Agency spent three million dollars in an effort to influence the outcome of the 1964 Chilean presidential elections. Eight million dollars was spent, covertly, in the three years between 1970 and the military coup in September 1973, with over three million dollars expended in fiscal year 1972 alone"...
"The policy response of the U. S. Government to the Allende regime consisted of an interweaving of diplomatic, covert, military, and economic strands. Economic pressure exorted by the United States formed an important part of the mix. It is impossible to understand the effect of covert action without knowing the economic pressure which accompanied it"...

Róbinson Rojas - 1996
The Chilean way to socialism. Popular Unity

In 1970, before the presidential election, the income differentials for the urban population ( 75 % of the population), were as follows (taking average income of blue-collar workers as one):
Employers 40.0
High rank civil servants 20.8
White-collar workers 3.3
Blue-collar workers 1.0
(Source: R.Rojas, "La Unidad Popular, Hacia donde?", Quimantu, 1973)
By 1970, a large sector of the Chilean population was openly advocating a revolution. The prevailing revolutionary ideology was one based in the enormous economic power of the "mobilising state". This ideology posed the strategy of "making the revolution from inside the state", gaining the government, that is. That was the basis for the political programme presented by the Popular Unity (Unidad Popular) for the presidential elections in 1970:

From World History Archives:
The retrospective history of Chile

Hartford Web Publishing is not the author of the documents in World History Archives and does not presume to validate their accuracy or authenticity nor to release their copyright.
The history of Chile in general

The Allende Era (to 1973)

Allende's Chile, 1972
By John Foran, Department of Sociology, University of California, Santa Barbara. A role playing learning project. The case visits the site of a meeting Allende held with his coalition partners in Lo Curro, in 1972, in which various proposals were put forward for dealing with social problems and sustaining the project of social transformation.

U.S. overthrows Chilean democracy (1963-1973)

A model operation - Covert action in Chile: 1963-1973
From Ralph McGehee. United States ran covert actions in Chile between 1963 and 1973 leading to the ascension of General Pinochet. The U.S. Government's official report of this covert action said this operation epitomizes CIA covert actions (worldwide).
CIA, AFL-CIO, and Pinochet
Kim Scipes. History of AFL involvement in South America since 1919, but especially, with CIA funding since the '60s, and the project to overthrow Chilean democracy from 1970. The work of the AIFLD network in labor penetration.
Hot Debate over Extent of US Intervention in Coup
By Gustavo Gonzalez, IPS. Right and left-wing senators in Chile argue over the extent of US intervention against the government of Salvador Allende. Also on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the coup, former US ambassador to Chile provided new information on CIA intervention in the 1964 presidential elections in Chile, when Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva - the father of current President Eduardo Frei - defeated Allende and his coalition of socialists and communists with the support of right-wing forces.
Still Hidden: A Full Record Of What the U.S. Did in Chile
By Peter Kornbluh, Washington Post. The historical record of U.S. support for the former Chilean dictator remains desaparecido--disappeared--like so many victims of his violent regime. In the wake of Gen. Pinochet's arrest in London a year ago, the Clinton administration has been conducting a special "Chile Declassification Project."
A selected list of some U.S. citizens, organizations, and intelligence officials who were involved in Chilean affairs in the 1970s
From Public Information Research, Inc. Each entry accompanied by citations to documentation (75Kb).
Castro Speaks On U.S. Role In 1973 Coup In Chile (excerpts)
By Fidel Castro.For the first time in history, a new experience was developed in Chile: the attempt to bring about the revolution by peaceful means, by legal means. And Allende was given the understanding and support of all the world in his effort - not only of the international Communist movement, but of very different political inclinations as well.
US Documents Confirm Destabilisation of Allende
By Jim Lobe, IPS. Declassified U.S. documents add new details to the Washington campaign of 25 years ago to destablise the government of President Salvador Allende of Chile which culminated in a bloody military coup.
Augusto Pinochet Report: Documents Show U.S. Knew of Pinochet Crackdown
By Karen DeYoung and Vernon Loeb. Washington Post. Days after the bloody 1973 coup that that overthrew Chilean President Salvador Allende, the CIA mission in Chile reported to Washington that the new government of Gen. Augusto Pinochet planned "severe repression" against its opponents and "the line between people killed during attacks on security forces and those captured and executed immediately has become increasingly blurred."
Declassified Documents Detail US Role in Chile
Weekly News Update on the Americas National Security Archive posted declassified US government documents on its web site which detail US attempts from 1970 to 1973 to prevent Allende from taking office and later to remove him from office. The documents include notes taken by Director of Central Intelligence Richard Helms at a White House meeting with President Richard Nixon, Attorney General John Mitchell and National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger.

The Pinochet dictatorship (1973-1990)

Official secret documents from Chile prove the existence of Operation Condor
In El Pais. Official documents from the Chilean Exterior Relations Ministry prove the existence of Operation Condor, which was responsible of the extermination of thousands of civilians in South America. Operation Condor was established during the I Interamerican Reunion on Military Intelligence that took place in Chile on November 25, 1975.
Role of former high official in Pinochet dictatorship is now subject of pointed questions in United States
From Institute for Public Accuracy. Jose Pinera was Chile's Minister of Labor and Social Security from 1978 to 1980 and is now co-chair of the Cato Institute's Project on Social Security Privatization.
Pinochet arrest raises new questions in Washington
By Institute for Public Accuracy. The arrest of former Chilean dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet has focused new attention on the record of his regime, which remained in power for 17 years after the 1973 coup that toppled Chile's democratically elected government.
Under the Dictatorship
Re the militarization of society after 1973; the creation in 1975 of the DINA secret police. The violation of the constitution and of human rights. The opposition and the 1988 plebescite (98 Kb).
ICFTU mourns death of Manuel Bustos, one of Chile's primary fighters against dictatorship
ICFTU Online. Manuel Bustos, a long-time champion and fighter against the Pinochet dictatorship and for democracy and workers rights in Chile died yesterday in Santiago. The government has announced three official days of mourning, followed by a state funeral, which will be attended by President Frei.
Preventing the pending release of Augusto Pinochet
Author recalls the cruel violation of women under the Pinochet dictatorship in support of a lobbying effort to have him tried in England.
US Inquiry May Link Pinochet to Letelier Murder
By Gustavo Gonzalez, IPS. The US Justice Department's decision to re-open investigations into the 1976 assassination of a former Chilean foreign minister, Orlando Letelier and his assistant, could mean the eventual implication of former dictator Augusto Pinochet in the crime.

World History Archives

School of the Americas Watch
Programa de la Unidad Popular

La unidad y la acción del pueblo organizado
El Poder Popular
Un nuevo orden institucional: el Estado Popular
La organización política
La organización de la justicia
La Defensa Nacional
La construcción de la nueva economía
Area de propiedad social
El área de propiedad privada
Area mixta
Profundización y extensión de la Reforma Agraria
Política de desarrollo económico
Tareas sociales
Cultura y Educación
Una cultura nueva para la sociedad
Un sistema educacional democrático, único y planificado
La educación física
Democracia, autonomía y orientación de la Universidad
Los medios de comunicación masiva
Política internacional del gobierno popular
Más independencia nacional
Solidaridad internacional
Política latinoamericana
Causa ML, No. 13, noviembre 1969
El motín del Tacna (I)
La crisis de un sistema que se desmorona
El motín del Tacna (II)
La ideología del movimiento reformista en el ejército
El motín del Tacna (III)
Desenmascarados los traidores del pueblo
El imperialismo juega a dos cartas: Frei y los amotinados
Llegó la hora de los fusiles
Revisionistas asumieron su papel de enfermeras del capitalismo

por Róbinson Rojas
Causa ML, No. 13, noviembre 1969
Los salarios actuales son menos de la mitad de los del año 1956
por Róbinson Rojas
- Los yanquis y los oligarcas nacionales ganan tres veces más que en 1956
- Los trabajadores ganan sólo 40% de lo que ganaban en 1956 La represión sistemática a los trabajadores resguarda esta explotación

Causa ML, No. 20, noviembre-diciembre 1970
A no dejarse engañar.
El problema no es como el pueblo apoyará a Allende...sino como Allende apoyará las luchas del pueblo...

-La táctica imperialista
-El programa UP
-¿Qué hacer?
-El revisionismo
-Los comités UP
-Las maniobras de la derecha
-Las tareas revolucionarias

Causa ML, No. 20, noviembre-diciembre 1970
La nueva economía del gobierno UP (I)
¿Capitalismo de Estado o un paso hacia la construcción del socialismo?
¿Propiedad social para quiénes?
- El capital extranjero
La Nueva Economía del gobierno UP (II)
- Una remuneración justa
- Y cuando las cifras se alteran
- Los grandes explotadores

por Róbinson Rojas
Causa ML, No. 20, noviembre-diciembre 1970
La ejecución del general
por Róbinson Rojas
Causa ML No. 21, julio-agosto 1971, Santiago de Chile
Las Fuerzas Armadas Chilenas (I)
El papel de los militares en el gobierno UP
Las Fuerzas Armadas Chilenas (II)
Promover las reformas y oponerse a la revolución
Las Fuerzas Armadas Chilenas (III)
El informe de los yanquis sobre las fuerzas armadas chilenas
por Róbinson Rojas ningún modo, las FF.AA. burguesas, las chilenas, pueden ser la garantía de una pretendida "vía chilena hacia el socialismo". Cuando más, son garantía de un reformismo que consolide el sistema capitalista dependiente que vive Chile...

Lea cómo el CC del partido socialista trató de impedir la publicación de este reportaje
Prontuario del imperialismo:

Causa ML, No. 1, mayo - junio 1968
La penetración norteamericana en Chile (1)
...mecanismos de penetración norteamericana en nuestro país en la economía, la educación y vida intelectual, y en las organizaciones militares
por Róbinson Rojas
Causa ML, No. 2, julio - agosto 1968
La penetración norteamericana en Chile (2)
...el actual gobierno de Chile ha abierto las puertas de nuestra nación al imperialismo norteamericano de la manera más desembozada que tenga recuerdo la historia nacional
por Róbinson Rojas
Causa ML, No. 3, septiembre - octubre 1968
La penetración norteamericana en Chile (3)
Un examen de la penetración norteamericana en Chile...sería incompleto si no se intentara analizar un sector clave de la estructura que apuntala el actual sistema político chileno: las fuerzas armadas
por Róbinson Rojas
Causa ML, No. 9, junio 1969
La penetración norteamericana en Chile (4)

Yanquis invaden la industria chilena
-Durante el gobierno de Frei los imperialistas han robado a Chile más de mil millones de dólares
-La Anaconda financia sus inversiones en aluminio con las ganancias obtenidas en Chile

por Róbinson Rojas

Causa ML, No. 9, junio 1969
La penetración norteamericana en Chile (5)

Las garras de los Rockefeller en Chile
-Agustín Edwards Eastman, Gabriel González Videla y otros chilenos vendepatria
por Róbinson Rojas

Causa ML, No. 10, julio 1969
La penetración norteamericana en Chile (6)

Anaconda "nacionalizada". Un premio al saqueo
- Pagaremos mas de 1.000 millones de dólares por 180 millones...que son chilenos
- Chile financiará el plan mundial de inversiones de la Anaconda
- Y como regalo final los yanquis se quedan con el mineral La Exótica

por Róbinson Rojas

Causa ML, No. 13, noviembre 1969
La penetración norteamericana en Chile(7)

La "ayuda" yanqui a Chile tiene condiciones políticas precisas
por Róbinson Rojas
Causa ML, No. 15, marzo-abril 1970
La penetración norteamericana en Chile(8)

La "nacionalización" de Chilectra. Una historia de yanquis ladrones y de chilenos vendepatria
-Chile compra un negocio malo por 4 veces su valor
-Da la entrada a los yanquis a la petroquimica
-La estafa se hizo con votos favorables de la "unidad popular", de la democracia cristiana y una maniobra oportunista de los nacionales

por Róbinson Rojas

Causa ML, No. 21, julio-agosto 1971
La penetración norteamericana en Chile(9)

La Anaconda y la Kennecott se han robado un Chile completo
-Deben al pueblo chileno más de 500 millones de dólares
-Tienen que irse...pero sin pagarles un centavo
por Róbinson Rojas

Santiago - Chile - 10 diciembre 2006
Murió Pinochet Ugarte, milico alzado, ladrón, asesino y mentiroso. El mayor criminal en la historia de Chile.

De La Nación - 17 diciembre 2006
Así fue el Chile de Pinochet

Noticias - Cajón de Sastre
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte
Imperialismo Yanqui
Ronald Reagan

La Unidad Popular
Estados Unidos y Chile
Estados Unidos y América Latina
Chile y América Latina hoy
El exilio y las palabras
La nación mapuche
Kontrainformación Mapuche en la red
AZKINTUWE: Periódico Nacional Mapuche
Centro de Documentación Mapuche
Libros de Róbinson Rojas
Apuntes, artículos y ensayos de Róbinson Rojas
Recomendamos nuestra sección
Lecturas Importantes

Crónicas de un Reportero
- Por Mario Gómez López

Las crónicas de Frida Modak Jorge Palacios C
Los archivos de Róbinson Rojas
(La economía política del desarrollo)

Creado y dirigido  por
Dr. Róbinson Rojas , este sitio académico promueve excelencia en la enseñanza y la investigación de la economía y del desarrollo sustentable, y en los procesos de descripción, comprensión, explicación y teorización.

Proyecto para el
Primer Siglo Popular

Magnicidio de
Salvador Allende

El blog de Guerrero