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From United Nations University

37. Reactions to TNCs - Multilateral (1)
38. Reactions to TNCs - Multilateral (2)


37. Reactions to TNCs - Multilateral (1)

37.1 Introduction: why supranational action is necessary
    a) limitations of national policies

    b) distortion of international allocations of resources caused
       by disparate national policies

    c) conflicts of interests in dealing with TNCs among
       participating countries e.g. with respect to extra
       territoriality, monopoly and restrictive practices
       legislation, policies towards dividend remission etc.

37.2 Geographical form and extent of multilateral action
    a) bilateral (between individual host, home or host/home
       countries); these may include investment promotion and
       protection treaties

    b) sectoral e.g. resource and commodity groups, labour

    c) regional

    d) international

37.3 Types of multilateral action
    a) provision of information e.g., the Investment Promotion
       Services of UNIDO

    b) harmonisation of FDI legislation, codes, incentives and
       strategies, competition policy, EEC, EU, Andean Pact,
       Mercosur, Nafta, etc

    c) international regulations, codes, insurance and investment
       guarantee schemes, guidelines, etc.

    d) financial id e.g. as provided by European Community's
       International Partner's scheme and International Finance
       Corporation (IFC)

    e) trade related measures; role of GATT (WTO), Lome Convention;
       the concept of TRIMS e.g. local content requirements, and 
       TRIPS e.g. with respect to intellectual property rights

37.4 Alternative institutional arrangements for promoting 
     multilateral action

37.5 Under what conditions is multilateral action likely to be
    a) similarity of economic goals and perceptions of
       participating parties

    b) relative bargaining power of participating parties

    c) where agreed policy can be successfully implemented
       (nb operational limitations of international institutions
        e.g. UN and OECD)

38. Reactions to TNCs - Multilateral (2)

38.1 Bilateral  investment agreements, codes and guidelines
    a) illustrations of bilateral treaties

    b) summary of various guidelines and codes - business,
       industry, country international (OECD, UNCTC, ICC, ILO) and
       sectoral (e.g. UNCTAD codes on technology transfer and
       restrictive practices)

    c) intentions of a) and b) to define rights and responsibilities
       of TNCs and what is expected (and not expected) of their

    d) pros and cons of guidelines and codes

    e) the experience of the OECD guidelines in structuring
       effective agreement

38.2 Regional and industrial groupings
    a) varying objectives of such groupings

    b) problems of polarisation within groups

    c) some experiences of EEC, Andean Pact and OECD and ASEAN

    d) intra-country joint ventures as a way of strengthening local
       technological capacity

38.3 International agencies: a fora for consensus?
    a) UNCTAD
      i) restrictive business practices
     ii) technology transfer (e.g. code of conduct as
         technology transfer)

    b) ILO (e.g. Declaration of Principles)

    c) UNIDO

    d) UNCTC

    e) World Bank: setting up of MIGA and GRIP in the mid 1980s
       (MIGA extends to protection to some non-equity forms
        of economic involvement)
Dicken(1986) UNCTC(1978, 1983, 1986) Sauvant and Lavipour(1976)
Wallace(1988) CTC Reporter (and since 1992: Transnational Corporations)
Hamilton(1983) Robinson(1983) UNCTC(1982c) Mytelka(1979)
Grosse(1980) Hermann(1982) Nugent(1982) Blanpain(1983)
Modelski(1977)     See Bibliography

RRojas Research Unit/1996