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World Development Report 1996. Statistical Annex



            New data publication
            Changes from previous editions of  World Development Reports
            Classification of economies
            Data sources and methodology
            Summary measures   
            Terminology and country coverage
            Table layout
            Technical notes

The nearly two decades since the World Development Indicators (WDI) were
first issued have seen dramatic changes not only in the global economy but
in the way in which we assess and measure development. These changes are
reflected in the increasing emphasis on poverty reduction through
broad-based growth and human resource development and on environmental
sustainability. The increasing importance of the private sector in
development strategies is mirrored by profound changes in the role of the
state. Over the years, the WDI has tried to keep up with these changes, but
it is now time for a major redesign.

New data publication

A new, freestanding, and more comprehensive World Development Indicators,
will appear in the autumn of 1996.  The traditional annex to the World
Development Report is being replaced with this issue by a set of Selected
World Development Indicators drawn from the WDI data sets. The design of
the new World Development Indicators will enhance its usefulness in
examining the world's progress in three broad areas: people, the
environment, and the economy. In addition, it will provide indicators that
describe progress in selected areas of national economic management, such
as macroeconomic stability, structural reforms (including financial sector
development, trade policy reforms, state enterprise reforms, etc.), and the
evolving role of the state. Its companion CD-ROM product will reflect these
changes and include time-series data and a more extensive guide to data
sources and statistical issues.

Changes from previous editions of  World Development Reports

The indicators tables in this report have been redesigned to provide a core
set of standard indicators covering the same three development themes:
people, the environment, and the economy. The layout of the 17 tables
retains the tradition of presenting comparative socio-economic data for
more than 130 economies for the most recent year for which data are
available and for an earlier year. An additional table presents basic
indicators for 76 economies with sparse data or with populations less than
1 million.
Because the World Bank's primary business is providing lending and policy
advice to its low- and middle-income member, the issues covered in this
publication focus mainly on economies. Where available, information on the
high-income economies is also provided for comparison. Readers may wish to
refer to national statistical publications or publications from the
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the European
Community for more information on the high-income economies.
More about the Selected World Development Indicators
Tables 1 to 3, Summary of socio-economic development indicators, offers an
overview of key development issues: How rich or poor are the people? What
is the life expectancy of newborns? What percentage of adults are
illiterate? How has the economy performed in terms of growth and inflation?
What kind of external economic environment do countries face?   
Tables 4 to 7, Human resources, shows the rate of progress in social
development during the past decade. A standard measure of income
inequality, the Gini index, has been added. Measures of well-being such as
malnutrition and access to health care, school enrollment ratios, and
gender differences of adult illiteracy are also presented.
Tables 8 to 10, Environmental sustainability, brings together the key
country-level indicators in this area. This section provides information on
the air we breathe, the water we drink, the cities we live in, and the
energy we consume.
Tables 11 to 17, Economic performance, presents information on the economic
structure and growth of the world's economies, as well as information on
foreign investment, external debt, and integration into the global economy
that is providing new challenges and opportunities for both developed and
developing economies.   

Classification of economies

As in the Report itself, the main criterion used to classify economies and
broadly distinguish different stages of economic development is GNP per
capita. Countries are traditionally classified into three categories: low,
middle, and high income. The GNP per capita cut-off levels are: low-income:
$725 or less in 1994 (51 economies); middle-income: $726 to $8,955 (57
economies); and high-income: $8,956 or more (25 economies). Economies are
further classified by region, exports, and indebtedness.  For a list of
economies in each group, see the tables on classification of economies at
the back of the book.

Data sources and methodology

Socioeconomic data presented here are drawn from several sources: primary
collection by the World Bank, member country statistical publications,
research institutes such as World Resources Institute, and international
agencies such as the United Nations and its specialized agencies, the
International Monetary Fund, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development (see Data Sources at the end of the Technical Notes for a
complete listing of sources).  Although international standards of
coverage, definition, and classification apply to most statistics reported
by countries and international agencies, there are inevitably differences
in coverage, currentness, and the capabilities and resources devoted to
basic data collection and compilation.  In some cases, competing sources of
data require review by World Bank staff to ensure that the most reliable
data available on a given topic are presented. In some instances, where
available data are deemed to be too weak to provide reliable measures of
levels and trends or do not adequately adhere to international standards,
the data are not shown.  
Differences between data presented in each edition reflect not only updates
by the countries, but also revisions to historical series and changes in
methodology. Thus data of different vintages may be published in different
editions of Bank publications. Readers are advised not to compare data
series between publications. Consistent time-series data are available in
the World*Data 1995 CD-ROM.
All dollar figures are current U.S. dollars unless otherwise stated. The
various methods used for converting from national currency figures are
described in the Technical Notes.

Summary measures

The summary measures in the colored bands on each table are totals
(indicated by t), weighted averages (w), or median values (m) calculated
for groups of economies. Countries for which data in the summary measures
are not shown in the main tables have been implicitly included on the
assumption that they have followed the trend of reporting economies during
such periods. The countries excluded from the main tables (those presented
in Table 1a. Basic indicators for other economies) have been included in
the summary measures when data are available, or, if no data are available,
by assuming that they follow the trend of reporting countries. This gives
a more consistent aggregated measure by standardizing country coverage for
each period shown. Where missing information accounts for a third or more
of the overall estimate, however, the group measure is reported as not
available. The weightings used for computing the summary measures are
stated in each technical note.

Terminology and country coverage

In these notes and tables, the term "country" does not imply political
independence but may refer to any territory for which authorities report
separate social or economic statistics.
Economic data reported for Germany before 1991 refer to the former Federal
Republic, but demographic and social data generally refer to the unified
Germany. Throughout the tables, exceptions are footnoted to explain
coverage. The data for China do not include Taiwan, China, but footnotes to
tables 15 and 16 provide estimates of international transactions for
Taiwan, China. Data reported for Ethiopia after 1991 exclude Eritrea unless
otherwise stated.

Table layout

The table format of this edition generally follows the format used in
previous editions. In each group, economies are listed in ascending order
of GNP per capita, except that those for which no such figure can be
calculated are italicized and listed in alphabetical order at the end of
the group deemed appropriate. This order is used in all tables. Economies
in the high-income group marked by the symbol + are those classified by the
United Nations, or otherwise regarded by their authorities, as developing.
Economies with a population of fewer than 1 million and those with sparse
data are not shown separately in the main tables but are included in the
aggregates. Basic indicators for these economies may be found in Table 1a.
The alphabetical list in the Key shows the reference number for each
economy; here, too, italics indicate economies with no current estimates of
GNP per capita.

Technical notes

The Technical Notes, Key, country classification tables, and footnotes to
the tables should be consulted for interpreting data. They outline the
methods, concepts, definitions, and data sources used in compiling the
tables. The Data Sources section at the end of the notes lists sources that
contain more comprehensive definitions and descriptions of the concepts
Comments and questions relating to the Selected World Development
Indicators should be addressed to: 
Development Data Group,
International Economics Department,
The World Bank, 1818
H St. N.W. Washington, D.C. 20433, 
by fax 202-522-1498, 
by e-mail to, or 
by calling 800-590-1906 or 202-473-7824. 
To order World Bank publications, e-mail your request to, 
or write to World Bank Publications at the address above, 
or call 202-473-1155.
For more information, click on  "publications" on the World Wide Web at


Sources of 1994 Demographic data

The Key table, below, provides an index to the countries included in the
Selected World Development Indicators and additional information on the
source of demographic data for the 133 countries included in the main
statistical tables. In each statistical table of the Selected World
Development Indicators, economies are listed in ascending order of GNP per
capita, except those for which no GNP per capita can be calculated; the
latter  are italicized, in alphabetical order, at the end of the income
group to which they belong. The ranking below by GNP per capita therefore
indicates a country's place in the statistical tables. 
Figures in colored bands in the tables are summary measures for groups of
economies. The letter w means weighted average; m, median value; and t,
Except where noted in the Technical Notes, growth rates for economic data
are in real terms. 
Data cutoff date is April 30, 1996. 
The symbol .. means not available. 
A blank space means not applicable. 
The figures 0 and 0.0 mean zero or less than half the unit shown. 
Figures in italics indicate data that are for years or periods other than
those specified. 
The symbol + indicates high income economies classified by the United
Nations, or regarded by their own authorities, as developing. 

                       Sources of 1994 Demographic data 
         GNP/capita Population         Total          Infant  
Economy     ranking census Population  fertility rate mortality rate 

Albania         32  1989  Official1    Official       Official    
Algeria         71  1987  World Bank3  Survey 1992    Survey 1992
Argentina      107  1991  Official2    U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div.
Armenia         46  1989  World Bank3  Official       Official
Australia      114  1991  Official2    Official       Official
Austria        126  1991  Official2    Official       Official
Azerbaijan      36  1989  Official2    Official       Official
Bangladesh      13  1991  World Bank2  Survey 1994    Survey 1994
Belarus         77  1989  Official2    Official       Official
Belgium        123  1991  Official2    Official       Official
Benin           30  1992  World Bank2  World Bank     World Bank
Bolivia         52  1992  Official2    U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div.
Botswana        88  1991  World Bank2  Survey 1988    Survey 1988
Brazil          92  1991  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div.
Bulgaria        62  1992  Official2    Official       Official
Burkina Faso    21  1985  World Bank3  Survey 1992    World Bank
Burundi          5  1990  World Bank3  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div.
Cameroon        47  1987  World Bank1  Survey 1991    Survey 1991
Canada         119  1991  Official2    Official       Official
Central Afr. R. 31  1988  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div.
Chad             8  1993  World Bank2  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div.
Chile           97  1992  Official2    Official       Official
China           39  1990  World Bank3  Official       Survey 1991
Colombia        72  1993  World Bank2  Survey 1990    Survey 1990  
Congo           43  1984  World Bank2  World Bank     World Bank     
Costa Rica      80  1984  World Bank3  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div.
Cote d'Ivoire   42  1988  World Bank3  Survey 1994    Survey 1994
Croatia         84  1991  Official2    World Bank     World Bank
Czech Republic  95  1991  Official2    Official       Official
Denmark        130  1991  Official2    Official       Official
Dominican Rep.  65  1993  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Ecuador         64  1990  World Bank3  Survey 1994    Survey 1994
Egypt, Arab R.  48  1986  World Bank   2  Survey 1992 Survey 1992
El Salvador     67  1992  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. UN Pop. Div.
Estonia         89  1989  Official2    Official       Official
Ethiopia a/      3  1994  World Bank3  Survey 1990    U.N. Pop. Div. 
Finland        116  1990  Official2    Official       Official
France         124  1990  Official2    Official       Official
Gabon          100  1993  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Gambia, The     26  1993  World Bank2  World Bank     World Bank
Georgia         50  1989  World Bank3  Official       Official
Germany b/     127  -     Official2    Official       Official
Ghana           33  1984  World Bank3  Survey 1993    Survey 1993
Greece         106  1991  Official2    Official       Official
Guatemala       60  1994  Official2    U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Guinea          38  1983  World Bank1  World Bank     World Bank   
Guinea-Bissau   16  1991  World Bank2  World Bank     World Bank
Haiti           14  1982  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Honduras        40  1988  World Bank3  Survey 1991-92 Survey 1991-92
+Hong Kong     120  1991  Official1    Official       Official
Hungary         99  1990  Official2    Official       Official
India           23  1991  World Bank2  Survey 1993    Survey 1993 
Indonesia       55  1990  World Bank2  Survey 1994    Survey 1994
Iran, Isl. R.   90  1991  World Bank2  U.N. Pop. Div. Official   
Ireland        112  1991  Official2    Official       Official
+Israel        113  1983  Official2    Official       Official
Italy          117  1991  Official2    Official       Official
Jamaica         69  1991  World Bank   3  World Bank  U.N. Pop. Div. 
Japan          131  1990  Official2    Official       Official
Jordan          68  1994  World Bank2  Official       Survey 1990 
Kazakstan       59  1989  World Bank3  Official       Official
Kenya           17  1989  World Bank2  Survey 1993    Survey 1993
Korea, Rep. of 108  1990  Official1    Official       Official   
+Kuwait        118  1985  Official2    U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Kyrgyz Republic 44  1989  World Bank3  Official       Official
Laos            24  1985  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. UN Pop. Div.
Latvia          79  1989  Official2    Official       Official
Lesotho         49  1986  World Bank3  Survey 1991    Survey 1991
Lithuania       66  1989  Official2    Official       Official   
Macedonia, FYR  53  1991  World Bank3  Official       Official     
Madagascar      10  1993  World Bank2  Survey 1992    Survey 1992
Malawi           7  1987  World Bank2  Survey 1992    Survey 1992
Malaysia        96  1991  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div.
Mali            18  1987  WorldBank2   Survey 1987    Survey 1987 
Mauritania      35  1988  World Bank3  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Mauritius       94  1990  World Bank3  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Mexico         101  1990  World Bank2  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Moldova         54  1989  Official2    Official       Official
Mongolia        22  1989  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Morocco         58  1994  World Bank2  Survey 1995    Survey 1995 
Mozambique       2  1980  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Myanmar         51  1983  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Namibia         75  1991  World Bank2  Survey 1992    Survey 1992
Nepal           11  1991  World Bank2  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Netherlands    121  1971  Official1    Official       Official
New Zealand    110  1991  Official2    Official       Official
Nicaragua       27  1971  World Bank1  Survey 1992-93 Survey 1992-93
Niger           15  1988  World Bank2  Survey 1992    Survey 1992
Nigeria         19  1991  World Bank2  Survey 1990    Survey 1990
Norway         129  1990  Official2    Official       Official
Oman           103  1993  World Bank3  Survey 1989    Survey 1989
Pakistan        34  1981  World Bank2  World Bank     World Bank
Panama          85  1990  World Bank3  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div.
Papua N. Guinea 61  1989  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Paraguay        70  1992  World Bank3  Survey 1990    Survey 1990 
Peru            76  1993  World Bank2  Survey 1991-92 Survey 1991-92  
Philippines     56  1990  Official2    Survey 1993    U.N. Pop. Div. 
Poland          81  1988  Official2    Official       Official
Portugal       109  1991  Official2    Official       Official
Romania         63  1992  Official2    Official       Official 
Russian Fed.    86  1989  World Bank3  Official       Official   
Rwanda           1  1991  World Bank2  Survey 1992    U.N. Pop. Div.
Saudi Arabia   105  1992  World Bank2  Survey 1990    Survey 1990
Senegal         41  1988  World Bank2  Survey 1992-93 Survey 1992-93 
Sierra Leone     6  1985  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
+Singapore     122  1990  Official1    Official       Official
Slovak Republic 78  1991  Official2    Official       Official
Slovenia       104  1991  Official2    Official       Official
South Africa    93  1991  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div.
Spain          111  1991  Official2    Official       Official
Sri Lanka       45  1981  Official2    Survey 1987    Survey 1987
Sweden         125  1990  Official2    Official       Official   
Switzerland    132  1990  Official2    Official       Official   
Tajikistan      29  1989  Official2    Official       Official
Tanzania         4  1988  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div.
Thailand        82  1990  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div.
Togo            25  1981  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Trinidad and T. 98  1990  World Bank2  Survey 1987    Survey 1987 
Tunisia         73  1994  World Bank2  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Turkey          83  1990  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Turkmenistan    91  1989  World Bank3  Official       Official
Uganda           9  1991  World Bank2  Survey 1991    Survey 1991
Ukraine         74  1991  Official2    Official       Official
United Arab E. 133  1980  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. Survey 1987
United Kingdom 115  1991  Official1    Official       Official  
United States  128  1990  Official2    Official       Official   
Uruguay        102  1985  World Bank3  U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div. 
Uzbekistan      57  1989  World Bank3  Official       Official
Venezuela       87  1990  Official2    U.N. Pop. Div. U.N. Pop. Div.
Viet Nam        12  1989  World Bank3  Survey 1995    Survey 1995
Yemen, Rep. of  20  1994  World Bank2  Survey 1991-92 Survey 1991-92 
Zambia          28  1990  World Bank1  U.N. Pop. Div. Survey 1987
Zimbabwe        37  1992  World Bank2  Survey 1994    Survey 1994   
    Note:  Economies with sparse data or with populations of more than
30,000 and fewer than 1 million are shown separately only in Table 1a;
however, they are included in the country group totals and weighted
averages in the main tables. For data comparability and coverage, see the
Technical Notes. 
a.      In all tables, data for Ethiopia after 1991 exclude Eritrea unless
otherwise noted. 
b.   In all tables, data refer to the unified Germany unless otherwise

  1.  Published by a National Statistical Office, or another official
country source, such as  Central Bank, Ministry of Planning, etc. 
  2.  Reported as an official estimate by Eurostat, Council of Europe, UN
Statistical Office, South Pacific Commission or similar international

World Bank: 
  1.  Based on the U.N. Population Division's latest estimates and
projections for 1990 and 1995. 
  2.  Based on a projection from the latest census. 
  3.  Based on a projection from the latest available official estimate. 
Fertility and Mortality Rates 

  Estimate based on vital registration or other official data collection

U.N. Pop. Div. 
  World Bank estimate based on the UN Population Division's estimates and
projections for 1990-94 and 1995-99. 

  World Bank estimate from the latest available Demographic and Health
Survey, Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, or other survey or census module
showing vital rates estimates. 

World Bank 
  Estimated from other sources; including Bank economic and sector reports,
other country studies, and level and trends in other indicators.  
       Data consistency and reliability
       Ratios and growth rates
       Constant price series
       Summary measures
                    Table 1. Basic indicators
                    Table 2. Macroeconomic indicators
                    Table 3. External economic indicators
                    Table 4. Population and labor force
                    Table 5. Distribution of income or consumption
                    Table 6. Health
                    Table 7. Education
                    Table 8. Commercial energy use
                    Table 9. Land use and urbanization
                   Table 10. Forests and water resources
      Tables 11, 12, and 13. Growth and structure of the economy
                   Table 14. Central government budget
                   Table 15. Exports and imports of merchandise
                   Table 16. Balance of payments 
                   Table 17. External debt
       Statistical Methods

            Exponential growth rate
            The Gini index
            World Bank Atlas method
These technical notes discuss the sources and methods used to compile the
120 indicators included in the 1996 Selected World Development Indicators. 

Notes on specific indicators are arranged by table heading and, within each
table, by order of appearance of the indicator. 

The 133 economies included in the main tables are listed in ascending order
of GNP per capita. 

A separate table (Table 1a) shows basic indicators for seventy-six
economies that have sparse data or have populations of fewer than 1


Indicators published here are based on data compiled by the World Bank from
a variety of sources. 
Data on external debt are reported directly to the World Bank, by
developing member countries, through the Debtor Reporting System. Other
data are drawn mainly from the United Nations (U.N.) and its specialized
agencies, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and country reports to the
World Bank. Bank staff estimates are also used to improve currentness or
For most countries, national accounts estimates are obtained from member
governments through World Bank economic missions. In some instances these
are adjusted by staff to ensure conformity with international definitions
and concepts, consistency, and currentness. 
Most social data from national sources are drawn from regular
administrative files, special surveys or periodic census inquiries.
Citations of specific sources are included in the Key table and with the
indicator notes below.

Data consistency and reliability

Considerable effort has been made to standardize the data, but full
comparability cannot be ensured, and care must be taken in interpreting the
indicators. Many factors affect availability, comparability, and
reliability: statistical systems in many developing economies are still
weak; statistical methods, coverage, practices, and definitions differ
widely among countries; and cross-country and cross-time comparisons
involve complex technical and conceptual problems that cannot be
unequivocally resolved. For these reasons, although the data are drawn from
the sources thought to be most authoritative, they should be construed only
as indicating trends and characterizing major differences among economies
rather than offering precise quantitative measures of those differences.
Also, national statistical agencies tend to revise their historical data,
particularly for recent years. Thus, data of different vintages may be
published in different editions of  World Bank publications. Readers are
advised not to compare such data from different editions. Consistent time
series are available from the World*Data 1995 CD-ROM. In addition, data
issues have yet to be resolved for the fifteen economies of the former
Soviet Union: coverage is sparse, and the data are subject to more than the
normal range of uncertainty.

Ratios and growth rates

For ease of reference, only ratios and rates of growth are usually shown.
Absolute values are generally available from other World Bank publications,
notably the 1995 edition of the World Tables and  World*Data 1995 CD-ROM.
Most growth rates are calculated for two periods, 1980-90 and l990-94, and
are computed, unless otherwise noted, by using the least-squares regression
method. (See notes on statistical methods below.) Because this method takes
into account all available observations in a period, the resulting growth
rates reflect general trends that are not unduly influenced by exceptional
values. To exclude the effects of inflation, constant-price economic
indicators are used in calculating growth rates. Data in italics are for
years or periods other than those specified_up to two years on either side
of the date shown for economic indicators and up to three years for social
indicators, because the latter tend to be collected less regularly and
change less dramatically over short periods of time.

Constant price series

To facilitate international comparisons and include the effects of changes
in intersectoral relative prices for the national accounts aggregates,
constant price data for most economies are first partially rebased to three
sequential base years and then "chain-linked" together and expressed in the
prices of a common base year, 1987. The year 1970 is the base year for the
period from 1960 to 1975, 1980 for 1976 to 1982, and 1987 for 1983 and
During the chain-linking procedure, components of gross domestic product
(GDP) by industrial origin are individually rescaled and summed to provide
the rescaled GDP. In this process a rescaling deviation may occur between
the constant price GDP by industrial origin and the constant price GDP by
expenditure. Such rescaling deviations are absorbed under the heading
private consumption, etc. on the assumption that GDP by industrial origin
is a more reliable estimate than GDP by expenditure. Independently of the
rescaling, value added in the services sector also includes a statistical
discrepancy as reported by the original source.

Summary measures

The summary measures across countries for regions and income groups,
presented in the blue bands in the tables, are calculated by simple
addition when they are expressed in levels. Growth rates and ratios are
usually combined by a base-year value-weighting scheme. The summary
measures for social indicators are weighted by population or subgroups of
population, except for infant mortality, which is weighted by the number of
births. See notes on specific indicators for more information.
For summary measures that cover many years, the calculation is based on the
same country composition over time. The methodology permits group measures
to be compiled only if the country data available for a given year account
for at least two-thirds of the full group, as defined by the 1987
benchmarks. As long as that criterion is met, missing reporters are assumed
to behave like those that provide estimates. Readers should keep in mind
that the goal of the summary measures is to provide representative
aggregates for each topic, despite myriad problems with country data, and
that nothing meaningful can be deduced about behavior at the country level
by working back from group indicators. In addition, the weighting process
may result in discrepancies between subgroup and overall totals. 

Table 1. Basic indicators

Basic indicators for economies with sparse data or with populations of
fewer than 1 million are shown in Table 1a.
Total population estimates are for mid-1994. See the Key table and notes to
Table 4 for additional information on the definition and sources of
population estimates.
Area data come from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Area is
the total surface area, measured in square kilometers, comprising land area
and inland waters.
GNP per capita: Gross National Product (GNP) in U.S. dollars is calculated
using the World Bank Atlas method, which is described in the section on
statistical methods at the end of these notes. 
GNP measures the total domestic and foreign value added claimed by
residents. It comprises GDP (see Table 12) plus net factor income from
abroad, which is the income residents receive from abroad for factor
services (labor and capital) less similar payments made to nonresidents who
contribute to the domestic economy. GNP per capita is calculated using the
resident population in the corresponding year.
GNP per capita is a useful measure of average economic productivity but
does not, by itself, measure welfare or success in development. It does not
distinguish between the aims and ultimate uses of a given product, nor does
it say whether a product merely offsets some natural or other obstacle, or
harms or contributes to general welfare. More generally, GNP does not deal
adequately with environmental costs and benefits, particularly those
associated with natural resource use. The World Bank has joined with others
to see how national accounts might provide insights into these issues.
"Satellite" accounts that delve into practical and conceptual difficulties
(such as assigning a meaningful economic value to resources that markets do
not yet perceive as "scarce" and allocating costs that are essentially
global within a framework that is national) have been included in the 1993
revision of the System of National Accounts (SNA). This will provide a
framework within which national accountants can consider environmental
factors in estimating alternative measures of income.
In estimating GNP per capita, the World Bank recognizes that perfect
cross-country comparability of GNP per capita estimates cannot be achieved.
Beyond the classic, strictly intractable, index number problem, two
obstacles stand in the way. One concerns the GNP and population estimates
themselves. There are differences in national accounting and demographic
reporting systems and in the coverage and reliability of underlying
statistical information among various countries. The other obstacle is the
use of official exchange rates for converting GNP data expressed in
different national currencies to a common denomination_conventionally the
U.S. dollar_to compare them across countries.
Recognizing that these shortcomings affect the comparability of the GNP per
capita estimates, the World Bank has introduced several improvements in the
estimation procedures. Through its regular review of member countries'
national accounts, the Bank systematically evaluates the GNP estimates,
focusing on the coverage and concepts employed and, where appropriate,
making adjustments to improve comparability. As part of the review process,

World Bank staff make estimates of GNP (and sometimes of population).
The World Bank also systematically assesses the appropriateness of official
exchange rates as conversion factors. An alternative conversion factor is
used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an
exceptionally large margin from the rate effectively applied to domestic
transactions of foreign currencies and traded products. This applies to
only a small number of countries. Using either the official or alternative
conversion factor, GNP per capita is calculated using the World Bank Atlas
method. Because of unresolved problems associated with the availability of
comparable data and the determination of conversion factors, information on
GNP per capita is not shown for some economies. 
     Some sixty low- and middle-income economies suffered declining real
GNP per capita during the late 1980s and early 1990s. In addition,
significant fluctuations in currency values and the terms of trade and the
time-lag between exchange rate movements and domestic price adjustments
have affected relative income levels. For this reason the levels and
ranking of GNP per capita estimates, calculated by the Atlas method, have
sometimes changed in ways not necessarily related to the relative domestic
growth performance of the economies.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) estimates of GNP per capita: The U. N.
International Comparison Programme (ICP) has developed measures of GDP on
an internationally comparable scale, using purchasing power parities
instead of exchange rates as conversion factors. The PPP conversion factor
is defined as the number of units of a country's currency required to buy
the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as one dollar
would buy in the United States.
The ICP collects average domestic prices of representative products
included in each participating country's national accounts through special
price surveys and derives its PPP in relation to the average international
prices that are implicitly derived from the prices of all participating
countries. In Table 1, the most recent ICP estimates are expressed in GNP
terms rather than in GDP terms to make them consistent with  World Bank
Atlas-based estimates.
Information on the ICP has been published in a number of other reports. The
most recent report is for 1993, part of which has already been published by
the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). To
obtain the estimates shown here, several sets of data were employed. The
data include (a) results of the ICP for 1993 for OECD, Eastern Europe, and
FSU countries extrapolated backward to 1987; (b) results for 1985 for
non-OECD countries, extrapolated to 1987; (c) the latest available results
for either 1980 or 1975 extrapolated to 1987 for countries that
participated in the earlier phases only; (d) World Bank estimates for
China, and (e) ICP estimates obtained by regression for the remaining
countries. These estimates are expressed as an index (U.S.=100 in column
5). Economies whose 1987 estimates are based on regressions are footnoted.
This blend of extrapolated and regression-based 1987 figures was
extrapolated to 1994, using World Bank estimates of real GNP per capita
growth rates, and scaled up by inflation rates measured by SDR deflators.
These estimates are expressed as an index (U.S.=100) in column 6. Economies
whose 1987 figures are extrapolated from another year or imputed by
regression are footnoted accordingly. The adjustments do not take account
of changes in the terms of trade.
The estimates of GNP per capita shown in column 7 are stated in
international dollars" by applying the PPP conversion factor to local
currency GNP and then dividing by the midyear population. The international
dollar, used as the common currency, is the unit of account that equalizes
price levels in all participating countries. It has the same purchasing
power over total GNP as the U.S. dollar in a given year, but purchasing
power over subaggregates is determined by average international prices at
that level rather than by U.S. relative prices. 
For further details on ICP procedures, readers may consult the ICP Phase IV
report, World Comparisons of Purchasing Power and Real Product for 1980
(New York: United Nations, 1986). Readers interested in detailed ICP survey
data for 1975, 1980, 1985, and 1990 may refer to Purchasing Power of
Currencies: Comparing National Incomes Using ICP Data (World Bank, 1993).
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant
would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth
were to stay the same throughout its life. The data are from a variety of
sources, including national statistical offices, demographic and health
surveys, censuses, the U.N. Population Division, and the World Bank.
Adult illiteracy: see Table 7.
The summary measures for GNP per capita, life expectancy, and adult
illiteracy in Table 1 are weighted by population. 

Table 2. Macroeconomic indicators

The principal sources of the data in Table 2 are the IMF's Government
Finance Statistics (GFS) and International Financial Statistics (IFS). Data
on GNP, GDP, and total external debt come from the World Bank's data files.
Central government current deficit/surplus is defined as current revenue of
the central government less current expenditure. Note that grants are
excluded. This is a useful measure of the government's own fiscal capacity.
The overall deficit/surplus, including grants and the capital account, is
shown in Table 14. 
Money, broadly defined, comes from the IFS. Broadly defined money comprises
most liabilities of a country's monetary institutions to residents other
than the central government. For most countries, broadly defined money is
the sum of money (IFS line 34) and quasi-money (IFS line 35). Money
comprises the economy's means of payment: currency outside banks and demand
deposits other than those of the central government. Quasi-money comprises
time and savings deposits and similar bank accounts that the issuer can
exchange for money with little, if any, delay or penalty and foreign
currency deposits of resident sectors other than those of the central
government. Where nonmonetary financial institutions are important issuers
of quasi-monetary liabilities, these are often included in the measure of
broadly defined money. The average annual nominal growth rate of broadly
defined money is calculated from year-end figures using the least-squares
method. The average of the year-end figures for the specified year and the
previous year is used to calculate the average of broadly defined money
outstanding as a percentage of GDP.
The nominal interest rates of banks show the deposit rate paid by
commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits and the
lending rate charged by the banks on loans to prime customers. The data are
of limited international comparability, partly because coverage and
definitions vary. Interest rates (and growth rates for broadly defined
money) are expressed in nominal terms; therefore, much of the variation
among countries stems from differences in inflation. 
The average annual rate of inflation is measured by the rate of change in
the GDP implicit deflator. The implicit deflator is calculated by dividing
annual GDP at current prices by the corresponding value of GDP at constant
prices, both in national currency. The least-squares method is then used to
calculate the growth rate of the GDP deflator for the period. This measure
of inflation, like any other, has limitations but is the most broadly based
measure, showing annual price movements for all goods and services produced
in an economy.
The current account balance before official transfers is the sum of net
exports of goods, services, and private transfers. Net official transfers
are excluded. See also Table 16.
Gross international reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special
drawing rights (SDRs), the reserve position of members in the IMF, and
holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities.
International reserves in U.S. dollars are shown in Table 16. Reserve
holdings as months of import coverage are calculated as the ratio of gross
international reserves to the current U.S. dollar value of imports of goods
and services multiplied by 12.
The net present value of total external debt is the discounted sum of all
debt service payments due over the life of existing loans in current
prices. To estimate the ratio to GNP, the debt figures are converted into
U.S. dollars from currencies of repayment at end-of-year official exchange
rates and GNP is converted from national currencies to U.S. dollars by
applying the conversion procedure described in the technical note for Table
The summary measures are computed from group aggregates for gross
international reserves and total imports of goods and services in current

Table 3. External economic indicators

Data in this table reflect a country's openness to international markets
and its potential vulnerability to changes in export prices, international
interest rates, and the availability of private capital flows and official
development assistance.
The terms of trade, or the net barter terms of trade, measure the relative
movement of export prices against that of import prices. Calculated as the
ratio of a country's index of average export prices to its average import
price index, this indicator shows changes over a base year in the level of
export prices as a percentage of import prices. The terms of trade index
numbers are shown for 1985 and 1994, where 1987 = 100. The data come from
the U.N. Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) data base and the
IMF's International Financial Statistics. See also Table 15.
The export concentration index is taken from UNCTAD's Handbook of
International Trade and Development Statistics. The index measures the
degree to which a country's exports are concentrated in, or diversified
among, SITC (Revision 2) three-digit level commodities.  The index is
calculated using the Hirschman or Herfindahl methodology: the shares of
exports in each commodity are squared summed; the index is the square root
of the sum, normalized to a range of zero to one (maximum concentration).
An interesting interpretation is that the inverse of the index represents
the equivalent number of commodities, each having equal-sized shares, that
the country trades. There are  239 commodities identified at the
three-digit level in the SITC Revision 2.
Aggregate net resource flows are the sum of net flows on long-term debt
(excluding use of IMF credit), plus official grants (excluding technical
assistance), net foreign direct investment, and net portfolio equity flows.
Total net flows on long-term debt are disbursements less the repayment of
principal on public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed
long-term debt. Official grants are transfers made by an official agency in
cash or in kind, in respect of which no legal debt is incurred by the
Net private capital flows consist of private debt and non-debt flows.
Private debt flows include commercial bank lending, bonds, and other
private credits; non-debt private flows are net foreign direct investment
and portfolio investment.
Official development assistance (ODA) comprises loans and grants made on
concessional financial terms by all bilateral official agencies and
multilateral sources to promote economic development and welfare. Net
disbursements equal gross disbursements less payments to the originators of
aid for amortization of past aid receipts. In order to qualify as ODA, each
transaction must meet the following tests: it is administered with the
promotion of the economic development and welfare of developing countries
as its main objective; and it is concessional in character and conveys a
grant element of at least 25 percent.
Summary measures for ODA as a percentage of GNP are computed from group
totals for ODA and for GNP in current U.S. dollars.

Table 4. Population and labor force

Population and labor force data provide a basic profile of the demographic
trends in a country.
Population estimates for mid-1994 are from a variety of sources, including
the U.N. Population Division, national statistical offices, and World Bank
country departments. (See also the notes in the Key table.) The World Bank
uses the de facto definition of a country's population, which counts all
residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. Note, however, that
refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum are generally
considered to be part of the population of their country of origin. 
The average annual growth rate of population is computed from end-point
data using an exponential growth model. See the section on statistical
methods for more information.
Age structure of the population shows the proportion of the total
population between the ages of fifteen and sixty-four inclusively.
Total labor force estimates are derived by applying participation rates
from the International Labour Office (ILO) to the population estimates.
They cover the so-called economically active population, a restrictive
concept that includes the armed forces and the unemployed but excludes
homemakers and other unpaid caregivers.
Percentage of females in the  total labor force is from ILO data. This
indicator shows the extent to which women are "gainfully employed" in the
formal sector. Labor force numbers in several developing countries reflect
a significant underestimation of female participation rates.
The structure of labor force shows the share of the labor force engaged in
agricultural and industrial activities. The agricultural labor force
includes people engaged in farming, forestry, hunting, and fishing. The
industrial labor force includes people working in the mining,
manufacturing, construction, and electricity, water, and gas industries. 
All summary measures are country data weighted by population or population

Table 5. Distribution of income or consumption

The table describes the distribution of income or consumption expenditures
accruing to subgroups of the population in sixty-five low- and
middle-income countries and twenty high-income countries. Because the
subgroups are ranked by per capita income or expenditure or, in the case of
high-income countries, by household income, the resulting shares indicate
the extent to which the distribution of income or consumption expenditures
in each country differs from strict equality.
Survey year is the year in which the underlying data were collected. The
data sets refer to different years between 1985 and 1994 and are drawn from
nationally representative household surveys.
The Gini index is a summary measure of the extent to which the actual
distribution of income or consumption differs from a hypothetical uniform
distribution in which each person or household receives an identical share.
The Gini index has a maximum value of 100 percent, indicating that one
person or household receives everything, and a minimum value of zero,
indicating absolute equality. The Gini index is the most popular measure of
inequality, but it is not a very discriminating indicator. For example,
when the underlying Lorenz (income distribution) curves cross, countries
with different income distributions may have the same index value. See the
section on statistical methods for more information.
The following columns report the percentage share of income or consumption
by quintiles and deciles of the population. Income distribution data for
low- and middle-income countries have been compiled from two main sources:
government statistical agencies and the World Bank. Where the original unit
record data from the household survey were available, these have been used
to calculate directly the income (or consumption) shares by quintile;
otherwise, shares have been estimated from the best available grouped data.
The distribution indicators for low- and middle-income countries have been
adjusted for household size, thus providing a more consistent measure of
per capita income or consumption. No adjustment has been made for spatial
cost-of-living differences within countries, because the data needed for
such calculations are not generally available. For further details on both
the data and the estimation methodology for low- and middle-income
countries, see Martin Ravallion and Shaohua Chen (1996). 
The data for Australia, Canada, Israel, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland,
and the United States are from the Luxembourg Income Study data base
(1990); those for France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, and the United
Kingdom are from the Statistical Office of the European Union. The data for
Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Japan, and New Zealand come from the U.N.,
National Accounts Statistics: Compendium of Income Distribution Statistics,
1985. Data for other high-income countries come from national sources.
There are significant comparability problems across countries in the income
distribution data presented here. The underlying household surveys are not
fully comparable, although these problems are diminishing as survey
methodologies both improve and become more standardized, particularly
through the initiatives of the United Nations (under the Household Survey
Capability Program) and the World Bank (under the Living Standard
Measurement Study and the Social Dimensions of Adjustment Project for
Sub-Saharan Africa). The following three sources of noncomparability ought
to be noted. First, the surveys differ in the use of income or consumption
expenditure as the living standard indicator. For thirty-nine of the
sixty-five low- and middle-income countries, the data refer to consumption
expenditure. Typically, income is more unequally distributed than
consumption. Second, the surveys differ in the use of the household or the
individual as their unit of observation. Further, household units differ in
the number of household members and the extent of income sharing among
members. Individuals differ in age and need for consumption. Where
households are used as the observation unit, the quintiles refer to the
percentage of households, rather than the percentage of persons. Third, the
surveys differ according to whether the units of observation are ranked by
household or per capita income (or consumption). The footnotes to the table
identify these differences for each country.
The international comparability of high-income country data is particularly
limited, because the observation unit is a household unadjusted for size,
and households are ranked according to total household income rather than
income per household member. These data are presented pending the
publication of improved data from the Luxembourg Income Study, where
household members are ranked by the average disposable income per
adult-equivalent person. The estimates in the table, therefore, should be
treated with considerable caution.

Table 6. Health

This table provides selected indicators of the prevailing health
infrastructure and the health status of the population. 
Access to health care is measured by the percentage of the population that
can reach local health services by the usual means of transportation in no
more than one hour. Note that facilities tend to be concentrated in urban
areas. In some cases, rural areas may have a much lower level of access.
Population with access to safe water is the percentage of the population
with reasonable access to safe water supply (including treated surface
waters or untreated but uncontaminated water, such as from springs,
sanitary wells, and protected boreholes). In an urban area this may be a
public fountain or standpost located not more than 200 meters away. In
rural areas it implies that members of the household do not have to spend
a disproportionate part of the day fetching water. The definition of safe
water has changed over time.
Access to sanitation refers to the percentage of population with at least
adequate excreta-disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human,
animal, and insect contact with excreta.
The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths of infants under one year
of age per thousand live births in a given year. The data are a combination
of observed values and interpolated and projected estimates. A few
countries, such as the economies of the former Soviet Union, employ an
atypical definition of live births, that reduces the reported infant
mortality rate relative to the standard (World Health Organization)
Prevalence of malnutrition measures the percentage of children under five
with a deficiency or an excess of nutrients that interfere with their
health and genetic potential for growth. Methods of assessment vary, but
the most commonly used are the following: less than 80 percent of the
standard weight for age; less than minus 2 standard deviations from the
fiftieth percentile of the weight-for-age reference population; and the
Gomez scale of malnutrition. Note that for a few countries the figures are
for children three or four years of age and younger.
Contraceptive prevalence rate is the proportion of women who are
practicing, or whose husbands are practicing, any form of contraception.
Contraceptive usage is generally measured for married women age fifteen to
forty-nine. A few countries use measures relating to other age groups,
especially fifteen to forty-four. Data are mainly derived from demographic
and health surveys, contraceptive prevalence surveys, and World Bank
country data.
The total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be
born to a woman were she to live to the end of her childbearing years and
bear children at each age in accordance with prevailing age-specific
fertility rates. The data are a combination of observed, interpolated, and
projected estimates.
The maternal mortality ratio refers to the number of female deaths that
occur during pregnancy and childbirth per 100,000 live births. Because
deaths during childbirth are defined more widely in some countries to
include complications of pregnancy or the period after childbirth or of
abortion, and because many pregnant women die from lack of suitable health
care, maternal mortality is difficult to measure consistently and reliably
across countries. Clearly, many maternal deaths go unrecorded, particularly
in countries with remote rural populations. This may account for some of
the low estimates shown in the table, especially for several African
countries. The data are drawn from diverse national sources. Where national
administrative systems are weak, estimates are derived from demographic and
health surveys using indirect estimation techniques or from other national
sample surveys. For a number of developing countries, maternal mortality
estimates are derived by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United
Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) using modeling techniques.
All summary measures, except for infant mortality, are weighted by
population or by sub groups of  the population. Infant mortality is
weighted by the number of births.

Table 7. Education

The data in this table refer to a variety of years, generally not more than
two years distant from those specified. The data are from the U.N.
Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
Primary school enrollment data are estimates of the ratio of children of
all ages enrolled in primary school to the country's population of primary
school-age children. Although many countries consider primary school age to
be six to eleven years, others use different age groups. For countries with
universal primary education, the gross enrollment ratios may exceed 100
percent because some pupils are younger or older than the country's
standard primary school age. 
Secondary school enrollments are calculated in the same manner, and again
the definition of secondary school age differs among countries. It is most
commonly considered to be twelve to seventeen years. Late entry of students
as well as repetition and the phenomenon of "bunching" in final grades can
influence these ratios.
The tertiary enrollment ratio is calculated by dividing the number of
pupils enrolled in all postsecondary schools and universities by the
population in the twenty to twenty-four age group. Pupils attending
vocational schools, adult education programs, two-year community colleges,
and distant education centers (primarily correspondence courses) are
included. The distribution of pupils across these different types of
institutions varies among countries. The youth population_that is, twenty
to twenty-four years_ has been adopted by UNESCO as the denominator,
because it represents an average tertiary level cohort, although people
above and below this age group may be registered in tertiary institutions.
The percentage of cohort reaching grade 4 is the proportion of children
starting primary school in 1980 and 1988 who continued to the fourth grade
by 1983 and 1991, respectively. Figures in italics represent earlier or
later cohorts. The data are based on enrollment records.
Adult illiteracy is defined here as the proportion of the population
fifteen years and older who cannot, with understanding, read and write a
short, simple statement on their everyday life. This is only one of three
widely accepted definitions, and its application is subject to qualifiers
in a number of countries. The data are from the illiteracy estimates and
projections prepared in 1995 by UNESCO.
The summary enrollment measures in this table are computed from country
enrollment rates weighted by population.

Table 8. Commercial energy use

The data on commercial energy use are primarily from International Energy
Agency (IEA) and U.N. sources. They refer to commercial forms of primary
energy_petroleum (crude oil, natural gas liquids, and oil from
unconventional sources), natural gas, solid fuels (coal, lignite, and other
derived fuels), and primary electricity (nuclear, hydroelectric,
geothermal, and other)_all converted into oil equivalents. For converting
nuclear electricity into oil equivalents, a notional thermal efficiency of
33 percent is assumed; hydroelectric power is represented at 100 percent
Total energy use refers to domestic primary energy use before
transformation to other end-use fuels (such as electricity, refined
petroleum products) and is calculated as indigenous production plus imports
and stock changes, minus exports and international marine bunkers. Energy
consumption also includes products for nonenergy uses, mainly derived from
petroleum. The use of firewood, dried animal excrement, and other
traditional fuels, although substantial in some developing countries, is
not taken into account, because reliable and comprehensive data are not
Energy use per capita is based upon total population estimates in the years
GDP per kilogram of commercial energy use is the U.S. dollar estimate of
GDP produced per kilogram of oil equivalent.
Net energy imports as a percent of consumption: both imports and
consumption are measured in oil equivalents for the purpose of calculating
their ratio. A negative sign indicates that the country is a net exporter.
The data on carbon dioxide emissions cover industrial contributions to the
carbon dioxide flux from solid fuels, liquid fuels, gas fuels, gas flaring,
and cement manufacture. They are based on several sources as reported by
the World Resources Institute. They are mainly from the Carbon Dioxide
Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), Environmental Science Division, Oak
Ridge National Laboratory. 
CDIAC annually calculates emissions of CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels
and the manufacture of cement for most of the countries of the world. These
calculations are based on data on the net apparent consumption of fossil
fuels from the World Energy Data Set maintained by the United Nations
Statistical Division and from data on world cement manufacture based on the
Cement Manufacturing Data Set maintained by the United States Bureau of
Mines. Emissions are calculated using global average fuel chemistry and
usage. Estimates do not include bunker fuels used in international
transport because of the difficulty of apportioning these fuels among the
countries benefiting from that transport. Although the estimates of world
emissions are probably within 10 percent of actual emissions, individual
country estimates may have larger error bounds.
The summary measures of energy use are computed by aggregating the
respective volumes for each of the years covered by the periods and
applying the least-squares growth rate procedure. For energy consumption
per capita, population weights are used to compute summary measures for the
specified years.
The summary measures of CO2 emissions are computed from group aggregates.
For per capita estimates, aggregate emissions and population are used.

Table 9. Land use and urbanization

The data on land use are compiled by the World Resources Institute (WRI).
The main source, however, is the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO),
which gathers these data from national agencies through annual
questionnaires and national agricultural censuses. However, countries
sometimes use different definitions of land use. The FAO often adjusts the
definitions of land use categories and sometimes substantially revises
earlier data. Because the data on land use reflect changes in data
reporting procedures as well as actual land use changes, apparent trends
should be interpreted with caution. Most land use data are from 1993.
Cropland includes land under temporary and permanent crops, temporary
meadows, market and kitchen gardens, and land that is temporarily fallow.
Permanent crops are those that do not need to be replanted after each
harvest, but excludes land used to grow trees for wood or timber. 
Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including
natural crops and cultivated crops. Only a few countries regularly report
data on permanent pasture, as this category is difficult to assess because
it includes wild land used for pasture. 
Other land includes forest and woodland, which the land under natural or
planted stands of trees, as well as logged-over areas that will be forested
in the near future. It also includes uncultivated land, grassland not used
for pasture, wetlands, wastelands, and built-up areas. The latter refers to
residential, recreational, and industrial lands and areas covered by roads
and other fabricated infrastructure. 
Urban population as a percentage of total population and estimates of the
population in urban agglomerations come from the U.N.'s World Urbanization
Prospects: The 1994 Revision. Urban agglomerations are metropolitan areas
with populations of 1 million or more. To compute the growth rate of the
urban population, the U.N.'s ratio of urban to total population is first
applied to the World Bank's estimates of total population (see Table 4).
The resulting series of urban population estimates are also used to compute
the population in urban agglomerations as a percentage of the urban
population. Because the estimates in this table are based on different
national definitions of what is urban, cross-country comparisons should be
made with caution.
The summary measures for urban population as a percentage of total
population are calculated from country percentages weighted by each
country's share in the aggregate population. The other summary measures are
weighted in the same fashion, using urban population.

Table 10. Forests and water resources

This table provides information on the status of two important
environmental resources. The data are drawn from sources cited in the World
Resources Institute's World Resources 1994-95. Perhaps even more than other
data in this report, however, these data should be used with caution.
Although they are indicative of major differences in resource endowments
and uses among countries, true comparability is limited because of
variation in data collection, statistical methods, definitions, and
government resources. They have been chosen because they are available for
most countries and reflect some general conditions of the environment.
Forest areas refer to natural stands of woody vegetation in which trees
predominate. These estimates are derived from country statistics assembled
by the FAO and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).
New assessments were published in 1993 for tropical countries by FAO and
for temperate zones by UNECE/FAO. 
FAO and the UNECE/FAO use different definitions in their assessments. The
FAO defines natural forest in tropical countries as either a closed forest
where trees cover a high proportion of the ground with no continuous grass
cover or an open forest, which is defined as mixed forest/grasslands with
at least 10 percent tree cover and a continuous grass layer on the forest
floor. A tropical forest encompasses all stands, except plantations, and
includes stands that have been degraded to some degree by agriculture,
fire, logging, or acid precipitation. The UNECE/FAO defines a forest as
land where tree crowns cover more than 20 percent of the area. Also
included are open forest formations; forest roads and firebreaks, small,
temporarily cleared areas, young stands expected to achieve at least 20
percent crown cover on maturity, and windbreaks and shelter belts.
Plantation area is included under temperate country estimates of natural
forest area. Some countries in this table also include other wooded land,
defined as open woodland and scrub, shrub, and brushland.
Deforestation refers to the permanent conversion of forestland to other
uses, including shifting cultivation, permanent agriculture, ranching,
settlements, or infrastructure development. Deforested areas do not include
areas logged but intended for regeneration or areas degraded by fuel wood
gathering, acid precipitation, or forest fires. The extent and percentage
of total area shown refer to the average annual deforestation of natural
forest area.
Nationally protected areas are areas of at least 1,000 hectares that fall
into one of five management categories: scientific reserves and strict
nature reserves; national parks of national or international significance
(not materially affected by human activity); natural monuments and natural
landscapes with some unique aspects; managed nature reserves and wildlife
sanctuaries; and protected landscapes and seascapes (which may include
cultural landscapes). This table does not include sites protected under
local or provincial law or areas where consumptive uses of wildlife are
allowed. These data are subject to variations in definition and in
reporting to the organizations, such as the World Conservation Monitoring
Centre, that compile and disseminate them. Total surface area is used to
calculate the percentage of total area protected. (See Table 1.)
Data on the annual freshwater withdrawal are subject to variation in
collection and estimation methods but are indicative of the magnitude of
water use in both total and per capita terms. These data, however, also
hide what can be significant variations in total renewable water resources
from one year to another. They also fail to distinguish the seasonal and
geographic variations in water availability within a country. Because
freshwater resources are based on long-term averages, their estimation
explicitly excludes decade-long cycles of wet and dry. The DĂpartement
HydrogĂologie in OrlĂans, France, compiles water resource and withdrawal
data from published documents, including national, United Nations, and
professional literature. The Institute of Geography at the National Academy
of Sciences in Moscow also compiles global water data on the basis of
published work and, where necessary, estimates water resources and
consumption from models that use other data, such as area under irrigation,
livestock populations, and precipitation. These and other sources have been
combined by the World Resources Institute to generate data for this table.
Withdrawal data are for single years and vary from country to country
between 1970 and 1994. Data for small countries and countries in arid and
semiarid zones are less reliable than those for larger countries and
countries with higher rainfall.
Total water resources include both internal renewable resources and, where
noted, river flows from other countries. Estimates are from 1992. Annual
internal renewable water resources refer to the average annual flow of
rivers and aquifers generated from rainfall within the country. Withdrawals
include those from nonrenewable aquifers and desalting plants but do not
include losses from evaporation. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of
renewable supplies when extractions from nonrenewable aquifers or desalting
plants are considerable or if there is significant water reuse. 
Total per capita water withdrawal is calculated by dividing a country's
total withdrawal by its population in the year for which withdrawal
estimates are available. For most countries, sectoral per capita withdrawal
data are calculated using sectoral withdrawal percentages estimated for
1987 to 1992. Domestic use includes drinking water, municipal use or
supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes.
Other withdrawals are those for direct industrial use, including
withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants, and withdrawals for
agriculture (irrigation and livestock production).

Tables 11, 12, and 13. Growth and structure of the economy

Table 11 shows the growth of gross domestic product (GDP) and its
Table 12 shows the structure of GDP by industrial origin. 
Table 13 shows the corresponding structure of GDP by its uses.
Most of the definitions used are those of the U.N. System of National
Accounts (SNA), Series F, No. 2, Version 3. Version 4 of the SNA was
completed only in 1993, and it is likely that many countries will continue
to use the recommendations of version 3 for the next few years. Estimates
are obtained from national sources, sometimes reaching the World Bank
through other international agencies but more often collected by World Bank
World Bank staff review the quality of national accounts data and, in some
instances, help adjust national series. Because of the sometimes limited
capabilities of statistical offices and basic data problems, strict
international comparability cannot be achieved, especially in economic
activities that are difficult to measure, such as parallel market
transactions, the informal sector, or subsistence agriculture.
GDP measures the total output of goods and services for final use produced
by residents and nonresidents, regardless of the allocation to domestic and
foreign claims. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation
of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources.
International comparability of the estimates is affected by differing
country practices in valuation systems for reporting value added by
production sectors. The SNA envisages estimates of GDP by industrial origin
to be at either basic or producer prices, but many countries report such
details at purchaser prices. As a practical solution, GDP estimates are
shown at purchaser prices in Table 11 if the components are on this basis,
and such instances are footnoted. In Table 13, GDP is measured in purchaser
values for all countries.

In Table 11, growth rates are computed from partially rebased,
chain-linked, 1987 constant price series in domestic currencies. 
The growth rate of exports of goods and non-factor services is based on
national accounts data in constant prices.

In Table 12, the figures for GDP are U.S. dollar values converted from
domestic currencies using single-year official exchange rates. For a few
countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate
effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative
conversion factor is used. Note that Table 12 does not use the three-year
averaging technique applied to GNP per capita in Table 1.
Summary measures in Table 12 are computed from group aggregates of sectoral
GDP in current U.S. dollars.
Agriculture covers forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation
of crops. In developing countries with high levels of subsistence farming,
much agricultural production is either not exchanged or not exchanged for
money. This increases the difficulty of measuring the contribution of
agriculture to GDP and reduces the reliability and comparability of such
Industry comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as
a separate subgroup in Table 12), construction, and electricity, water, and
gas. Value added in all other branches of economic activity, such as
wholesale and retail trade, transportation, government, and personal
services and including imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any
statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers, are included in

In Table 13, general government consumption includes all current
expenditures for purchases of goods and services by all levels of
government, but excluding most government enterprises. Capital expenditure
on national defense and security is regarded as a general government
consumption expenditure.
Private consumption is the market value of all goods and services,
including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home
computers) purchased or received as income in kind by households and
nonprofit institutions. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes
imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. In practice, it may include any
statistical discrepancy in the use of resources.
Gross domestic investment consists of outlays on additions to the fixed
assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories.
Gross domestic savings are calculated by deducting total consumption from
Exports of goods and nonfactor services represent the value of all goods
and nonfactor services provided to the rest of the world. This includes the
value of merchandise, freight, insurance, travel, and other nonfactor
services. The value of factor services, such as investment income,
interest, and labor income, is excluded. Current transfers are also
The resource balance is the difference between exports of goods and
nonfactor services and imports of goods and nonfactor services.
In calculating the summary measures for each indicator in Table 11,
partially rebased constant 1987 U.S. dollar values for each economy are
calculated for each year of the periods covered; the values are aggregated
across countries for each year; and the least-squares procedure is used to
compute the growth rates. The average sectoral percentage shares in Tables
12 and 13 are computed from group aggregates of sectoral GDP in current
U.S. dollars. 

Table 14. Central government budget

The data on central government revenues and expenditures are from the
IMF''s Government Finance Statistics Yearbook (1995), and IMF data files.
The accounts of each country are reported using the system of common
definitions and classifications found in the IMF's A Manual on Government
Finance Statistics (1986). For complete and authoritative explanations of
concepts, definitions, and data sources, see these IMF sources. The
commentary that follows is intended mainly to place these data in the
context of the broad range of indicators reported.
Because of differences in coverage of available data, the individual
components of central government expenditure and revenue shown may not be
strictly comparable across all economies.
Inadequate statistical coverage of state, provincial, and local governments
requires the use of central government data; this may seriously understate
or distort the statistical portrayal of the allocation of resources for
various purposes, especially in countries where lower levels of government
have considerable autonomy and are responsible for many economic and social
services. In addition, "central government" can mean either of two
accounting concepts: consolidated or budgetary. For most countries, central
government finance data have been consolidated into one overall account,
but for others only the budgetary central government accounts are
available. Because budgetary accounts do not always include all central
government units, the overall picture of central government activities is
usually incomplete. Countries reporting budgetary data are footnoted.
Consequently, the data presented, especially those for social services, are
not comparable across countries. In many economies, private health and
education services are substantial; in others, public services represent
the major component of total expenditure but may be financed by lower
levels of government. Caution should therefore be exercised in using the
data for cross-country comparisons.
Total revenue is derived from tax and nontax sources. Tax revenues comprise
compulsory, unrequited, nonrepayable receipts for public purposes. They
include interest collected on tax arrears and penalties collected on
nonpayment or late payment of taxes and are shown net of refunds and other
corrective transactions.
Nontax revenue comprises receipts that are not compulsory, nonrepayable
payments for public purposes, such as fines, administrative fees, or
entrepreneurial income from government ownership of property. Proceeds of
grants and borrowing, funds arising from the repayment of previous lending
by governments, incurrence of liabilities, and proceeds from the sale of
capital assets are not included.
Central government expenditure comprises the expenditure by all government
offices, departments, establishments, and other bodies that are agencies or
instruments of the central authority of a country. It includes both current
and capital (development) expenditures.
Defense comprises all expenditures, whether by defense or other
departments, on the maintenance of military forces, including the purchase
of military supplies and equipment, construction, recruiting, and training.
Also in this category are closely related items such as military aid
programs. Defense does not include expenditure on public order and safety,
which are classified separately. Defense is treated as a current
Social services comprises expenditures on health, education, housing,
welfare, social security, and community amenities. These categories also
cover compensation for loss of income to the sick and temporarily disabled;
payments to the elderly, the permanently disabled, and the unemployed;
family, maternity, and child allowances; and the cost of welfare services,
such as care of the aged, the disabled, and children. Many expenditures
relevant to environmental defense, such as pollution abatement, water
supply, sanitary affairs, and refuse collection, are included
indistinguishably in this category. 
Overall deficit/surplus is defined as current and capital revenue and
official grants received, less total expenditure and lending minus
repayments. This is a broader concept than the current government
deficit/surplus shown in Table 2.

Table 15. Exports and imports of merchandise

The main source of current trade values is the U.N. Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD) trade data base, supplemented by the data from the
IMF's International Financial Statistics (IFS), the U.N.'s Commodity Trade
(COMTRADE) data base, and World Bank estimates. The shares in these tables
are derived from trade values in current dollars reported in the UNCTAD
trade data system, supplemented by data from the U.N. COMTRADE system. 
Merchandise exports and imports, with some exceptions, cover international
movements of goods across customs' borders; trade in services is not
included. Exports are valued f.o.b. (free on board) and imports c.i.f.
(cost, insurance, and freight) unless otherwise specified in the foregoing
sources. These values are in current U.S. dollars.
The categorization of exports and imports follows the Standard
International Trade Classification (SITC), Series M, No. 34, Revision 1.
For some countries, data for certain commodity categories are unavailable.
Food commodities are those in SITC Sections 0, 1, and 4 and Division 22
(food and live animals, beverages and tobacco, animal and vegetable oils
and fats, oilseeds, oil nuts, and oil kernels). Fuels are the commodities
in SITC Section 3 (mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials). 
Average annual growth rates of exports and imports are calculated from
values in constant prices which are derived from current values deflated by
the relevant price index. The World Bank uses the price indexes produced by
UNCTAD for low- and middle-income economies, and those presented in the
IMF's International Financial Statistics for high-income economies. These
growth rates can differ from those derived from national sources because
national price indexes may use different base years and weighting
procedures from those used by UNCTAD or the IMF.
The summary measures for the growth rates are calculated by aggregating the
1987 constant U.S. dollar price series for each year and then applying the
least-squares growth rate procedure for the periods shown.

Table 16. Balance of payments 

The data for this table are based upon IMF data files. World Bank staff
also make estimates and, in rare instances, adjust coverage or
classification  to enhance international comparability. Definitions and
concepts are based upon the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual, Fourth
Edition (1977). The IMF now uses the fifth edition to compile balance of
payments data. As a result, some indicators shown here may differ from
those published in recent IMF publications. Values are in U.S. dollars
converted at official exchange rates.
Exports and imports of goods and services comprise all transactions
involving a change of ownership of goods and services between residents of
a country and the rest of the world, including merchandise, nonfactor
services, and factor services. 
Net workers' remittances cover payments and receipts of income by migrants
who are employed or expect to be employed for more than a year in their new
economy, where they are considered residents. These remittances are
classified as private unrequited transfers, whereas those derived from
shorter-term stays are included in services as labor income. The
distinction accords with internationally agreed guidelines, but some
developing countries classify workers' remittances as a factor income
receipt (hence, a component of GNP). The World Bank adheres to
international guidelines in defining GNP and therefore may differ from
national practices.
Other net private transfers comprise net unrequited private transfers other
than workers' remittances.
The current account balance before official transfers is the sum of net
exports of goods and services and net private transfers, but excludes net
official transfers.
Gross international reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special
drawing rights (SDRs), the reserve position of members in the IMF, and
holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The
data on holdings of international reserves are from IMF data files. The
gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London
prices: that is, $589.50 an ounce in 1980 and $383.25 an ounce in 1994.
Because of differences in the definition of international reserves, in the
valuation of gold, and in reserve management practices, the levels of
reserve holdings published in national sources may not be strictly
comparable. The reserve levels for 1980 and 1994 refer to the end of the
year indicated and are in current U.S. dollars at prevailing exchange
rates. See Table 2 for reserve holdings expressed as months of import
The summary measures are computed from group aggregates for gross
international reserves.

Table 17. External debt

The data on debt in this table come from the World Bank Debtor Reporting
System, supplemented by World Bank estimates. The system is concerned
solely with developing economies and does not collect data on external debt
for other groups of borrowers or for economies that are not members of the
World Bank. Debts is stated in U.S. dollars converted at official exchange
rates. The data on debt include private nonguaranteed debt reported by
thirty developing countries and complete or partial estimates for an
additional twenty that do not report but for which this type of debt is
known to be significant.
Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private
nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt.
Long-term debt has three components: public, publicly guaranteed, and
private nonguaranteed loans. Public loans are external obligations of
public debtors, including the national government, its agencies, and
autonomous public bodies. Publicly guaranteed loans are external
obligations of private debtors that are guaranteed for repayment by a
public entity. Private nonguaranteed loans are external obligations of
private debtors that are not guaranteed for repayment by a public entity.
Use of IMF credit denotes repurchase obligations to the IMF for all uses of
IMF resources, excluding those resulting from drawings in the reserve
tranche. It comprises purchases outstanding under the credit tranches,
including enlarged access resources, and all special facilities (the buffer
stock, compensatory financing, extended fund, and oil facilities), trust
fund loans, and operations under the enhanced structural adjustment
facilities. Use of IMF credit outstanding at year-end (a stock) is
converted to U.S. dollars at the dollar-SDR exchange rate in effect at
year-end. Short-term debt is debt with an original maturity of one year or
less. It includes interest arrears on long-term debt outstanding and
disbursed that are due but not paid, on a cumulative basis. Available data
permit no distinctions between public and private nonguaranteed short-term
Total external debt as a percentage of GNP and exports of goods and
services (including workers' remittances) is calculated in U.S. dollars.
Total debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services is the
sum of principal repayments and interest payments on total external debt.
It is one of several conventional measures used to assess a country's
ability to service debt. 
The ratio of present value to nominal value of debt is the discounted value
of future debt service payments divided by the face value of total external
debt. The present value of external debt is the discounted sum of all debt
service payments due over the life of existing loans. The present value can
be higher or lower than the nominal value of debt. The determining factors
for the present value being above or below par are the interest rates of
loans and the discount rate used in the present value calculation. A loan
with an interest rate higher than the discount rate yields a present value
that is larger than the nominal value of debt; the opposite holds for loans
with an interest rate lower than the discount rate.
The discount rates used to calculate the present value are interest rates
charged by Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
countries for officially supported export credits. The rates are specified
for the Group of Seven (G7) currencies--British pounds, Canadian dollars,
French francs, German marks, Italian lire, Japanese yen, and U.S. dollars.
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loans and
International Development Association (IDA) credits are discounted by the
most recent IBRD lending rate, and International Monetary Fund (IMF) loans
are discounted by the Special Drawing Rights (SDR) lending rate. For debt
denominated in other currencies, discount rates are the average of interest
rates on export credits charged by other OECD countries. For variable rate
loans, for which the future debt service payments cannot be precisely
determined, debt service is calculated using the end-1994 rates for the
base period specified for the loan. 
Multilateral debt as a percentage of total external debt conveys
information about the borrower's receipt of aid from the World Bank,
regional development banks, and other multilateral and intergovernmental
agencies. Excluded are loans from funds administered by an international
organization on behalf of a single donor government.
The summary measures are taken from the 1996 World Debt Tables, Volume 1. 

Statistical Methods 

This section describes the calculation of the least-squares growth rate,
the exponential (end-point) growth rate, the Gini index, and the World
Bank's Atlas methodology for estimating the conversion factor used to
estimate GNP and GNP per capita in U.S. dollars. 
Least-squares growth rate
The least-squares growth rate, r, is estimated by fitting a least-squares
linear regression trend line to the logarithmic annual values of the
variable in the relevant period. More specifically, the regression equation
takes the form 
     log Xt = a + bt,
which is equivalent to the logarithmic transformation of the geometric
growth rate equation,  
     Xt  = Xo (1 + r)t .
In these equations, X  is the variable, t is time, 
and a = log Xo and b = log (1 + r) are the parameters to be estimated. 
If b* is the least-squares estimate of b, then the average annual growth
rate, r, is obtained as [antilog (b*)-1] and is multiplied by 100 to
express it as a percentage.
The calculated growth rate is an average rate that is representative of the
available observations over the period. It does not necessarily match the
actual growth rate between any two periods. Assuming that geometric growth
is the appropriate "model" for the data, the least-squares estimate of the
growth rate is consistent and efficient. 

Exponential growth rate

The growth rate between two points in time for certain demographic data,
notably labor force and population, is calculated from the equation:
          r = ln(pn/p1)/n 
          where pn and p1 are the last and first observations in the
period, n is the number of years in the period, and ln is the natural
logarithm operator.This growth rate is based on a model of  continuous,
exponential growth. To obtain a growth rate for discrete periods comparable
to the least-squares growth rate, take the antilog of the calculated growth
rate and subtract 1.

The Gini index

The Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or,
in some cases, consumption expenditures) among individuals or households
within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz
curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the
cumulative percentage of recipients, starting with the poorest individual
or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and
a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the
maximum area under the line. Thus  a Gini index of zero presents perfect
equality while an index of 100 percent implies maximum inequality.
The World Bank employs a numerical analysis program, POVCAL, to estimate
values of the Gini index; see Chen, Datt, and Ravallion (1992). 

World Bank Atlas method

The Atlas conversion factor for any year is the average of a country's
exchange rate (or alternative conversion factor) for that year and its
exchange rates for the two preceding years, after adjusting them for
differences in rates of inflation between the country and the G-5 countries
(France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.) The
inflation rate for G-5 countries is represented by changes in the SDR
deflators. This three-year averaging smooths annual fluctuations in prices
and exchange rates for each country. The Atlas conversion factor is applied
to the country's GNP. The resulting GNP in U.S. dollars is divided by the
midyear population for the latest of the three years to derive GNP per
The following formulas describe the procedures for computing the conversion
factor for year t:

e*t =(1/3)[et-2((pt/pt-2)/(ptS$/pt-2S$)) + et-1((pt/pt-1)/ptS$/pt-1S$)
      + et]

and for calculating GNP per capita in U.S. dollars for year t:
                  Yt$ = (Yt/Nt)/e*t

whereYt = current GNP (local currency) for year t;
     pt = GNP deflator for year t;
     et = average annual exchange rate (national currency to the U.S.     
          dollar) for year t;
     Nt = midyear population for year t;
   ptS$ = SDR deflator in U.S. dollar terms for year t.




Summary of socioeconomic development indicators

International Monetary Fund. Government Finance Statistics Yearbook. Vol.
11. Washington, D.C.

__. Various years. International Financial Statistics. Washington, D.C. 

U.N. International Comparison Program Phases IV (1980), V (1985), and VI
(1990) reports, and data from ECE, ESCAP, Eurostat, OECD, and U.N.

World Bank. 1993. Purchasing Power of Currencies: Comparing National
Incomes Using ICP data. Washington, D.C.

FAO, IMF, UNCTAD, World Bank data, and national sources.
Human resources

Atkinson, Anthony, Lee Rainwater, and Timothy Smeeding. 1995. Income
Distribution in Advanced Economies: The Evidence from the Luxembourg Income
Study (LIS). Paris: OECD.

Bos, Eduard, My T. Vu, Ernest Massiah, and Rodolfo A. Bulatao. 1994. World
Population Projections, 1994-95 Edition.  Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins
University Press.

Chen, Shaohua, Gaurav Datt, and Martin Ravallion, 1992. POVCAL, A Program
for Poverty Measurement for Grouped Data. World Bank,  Policy Research
Department, Washington, D.C.
Council of Europe. 1995. Recent Demographic Developments in Europe and
North America. Council of Europe Press.

Eurostat. Various years. Demographic Statistics. Luxembourg. Statistical
Office of the European Community.

Institute for Resource Development/Westinghouse. 1987. Child Survival:
Risks and the Road to Health. Columbia, Md.

International Labour Office. 1995. Year Book of Labour Statistics. Geneva.
__. 1995. Labour Force Estimates and Projections, 1950-2010. Geneva
__. 1995. Estimates of the Economically Active Population by Sex and Age
Group and by Main Sectors of Economic Activity. Geneva.

Ravallion, Martin, and Chen, Shaohua. 1996. "What can new survey data tell
us about recent changes in living standards in developing and transitional
economies?" World Bank, Policy Research Department, Washington, D.C.

Ross, John and others. 1993. Family Planning and Population: A Compendium
of International Statistics. New York: The Population Council.

U.N. Administrative Committee on Co-ordination, Subcommittee on Nutrition.
Various years. Update on the Nutrition Situation. Geneva.
U.N. Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.
(formerly U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs).
Various years. Demographic Yearbook. New York.
__. Various years. Statistical Yearbook. New York.
__. Various years. Levels and Trends of Contraceptive Use. New York.
__. 1988. Mortality of Children under Age 5: Projections 1950-2025. New
__. 1994. World Population Prospects: The 1994 Edition. New York.
____. Various years. Population and Vital Statistics Report. New York.

U.N. Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. Various years.
Statistical Yearbook. Paris.

UNICEF. 1996. The State of the World's Children 1996. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.

United States Bureau of the Census. Various years. World Population -
Recent Estimates for the Countries and Regions of the World. Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

World Health Organization. Various years. World Health Statistics Annual.
____. Various years. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation
Decade. Geneva.
__. 1986. Maternal Mortality Rates: A Tabulation of Available Information,
2nd edition. Geneva.
__. 1991. Maternal Mortality: A Global Factbook. Geneva.
__. Various years. World Health Statistics Report. Geneva.
____ and UNICEF. 1995. "Modeling maternal mortality in the developing
world." Geneva.

FAO, ILO, U.N., and World Bank data; demographic and health surveys from
national sources.

Environmentally sustainable development

International Energy Agency. 1995. IEA Statistics: Energy statistics and
balances. Paris: OECD.

U.N. Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis
(formerly U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs).
Various years. World Energy Supplies. Statistical Papers, series J. New
____. Various years. Energy Statistics Yearbook. Statistical Papers, series
J. New York.
__. 1994. World Urbanization Prospects, 1994 Revision . New York. 

World Resources Institute. 1994. World Resources 1994-95. New York.
__. 1996. World Resources 1996-97. New York.

Economic performance

International Monetary Fund. Various years. Government Finance Statistics
Yearbook. Vol. 11. Washington, D.C.
__. Various years. International Financial Statistics. Washington, D.C. 

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Various years.
Development Co-operation. Paris.
__. 1988. Geographical Distribution of Financial Flows to Developing
Countries. Paris.

U.N. Conference on Trade and Development. Various years. Handbook of
International Trade and Development Statistics. Geneva.

U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Various
years. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. New York.
__. Various years. Yearbook of International Trade Statistics. New York.

FAO, IMF, OECD, UNIDO, and World Bank data; World Bank Debtor Reporting
System; national sources

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