GLOBALIZATION 4000 BCE - 2000 CE
University of Nebraska
Fall Semester 2001
SYLLABUS TABLE OF CONTENTS
- Course Description
- Some Illustrative Quotes
- Term Paper
- Class Schedule, Readings, Themes & Questions
- ReORIENT by A.G. Frank - Purchase recommended with apologies
- THE GREAT DIVERGENCE by Kenneth Pomeranz
- THE NEW WORLD HISTORY, ed. by Ross Dunn [dozens of approaches exemplified and discussed]
- TEACHERS GUIDE AP HISTORY, ed. by J. Arno, for College Board - FREE/bee !! copies
Recommended Books - useful but optional
- WEALTH AND POVERTY OF NATIONS by David Landes, recommended for squeezing every wrong
notion between two covers [see Landes/Frank Debate C-Span video].
- EIGHT EUROCENTRIC HISTORIANS by J.M. Blaut Recommended for critiquing these notions and
8 of their authors, one chpt each including Landes-
- THE WORLD SYSTEM: FIVE HUNDRED YEARS OR FIVE THOUSAND? Ed. By A.G. Frank & B.K.Gills
[Pb price modest?] 6 basic WS5000 chapts by Frank & Gills, and by other authors 2
supportive ones and 3 all or part critical ones
- WORLD SYSTEM HISTORY. THE SOCIAL SCIENCE OF LONG TERM CHANGE, Robert Brenner ed. [Pb
price modest I hope] 5 chapters [including one by Frank] on general long term WSH
perspectives/approaches - W 5 chapters on large regional studies, and 5 chapters on
applications and case studies.
- Bentley, Jerry & HF Ziegler- Traditions & Encounters:Global Perspective on Past
- has the most global/world perspective of the dozens of world history texts out there
This is a lecture, reading, and discussion course/seminar. It is frankly Frank
centered. Sombody entitled an essay of his "Lets be Frank about World History,"
and that is I hope what I am here for. Accordingly, the course is global historical
materialist; but it also gives [due?] attention to complementary and at least some
opposing perspectives and works. This is a frankly exceptional and innovative attempt a
doing a globally connective and inclusive, even if so far predominantly economic, history.
It is even more innovative to pursue a time line horizontally around the world at the SAME
time. Conventional regional and topical histories only examine one region or process topic
vertically through time,. Even 'world history'' predominantly still only examines,
compares and at best gives 'equal time'' to different regions and allegedly separate
'civilizations' one after another. Even the "New World History" [see below the
book by that title edited by Dunn] does not even attempt to connect them around the world,
let alone to place them in their GLOBAL context at one time I try to do that and invite
you to do so as well.
Accordingly in principle and mostly in practice, one period will be examined each week
on a global basis. The instructor will offer a lecture on Tuesdays, and the seminar will
discuss it and the related readings on Thursdays. Readings will be previously assigned for
each week, and students will hopefully have read them by Tuesday in order better to
assimilate the lecture, and they will be expected definitely to have read all of the
material listed at the top of each week's list before the Thursday discussion. However,
not every student is expected to read every reading listed below. The ones listed at the
bottom for each week can by prior agreement be distributed among particular students who
agree to "take" this or that one and then to summarize - but NOT ONLY to
summarize it and bring its content and/or perspective to bear in and on the Thursday
discussion. Thus, the Thursday discussion should be based on both the Tuesday lecture and
on the related readings assigned to all for that topic and week as well as on the
contributions of those who selected additional readings, who therefore should be able also
to lead the discussion on the basis of these particular readings. Of course, students and
especially discussion leaders are encouraged to introduce and deal with related questions
of particular interest to them. However in addition to and after its title, each topic is
also accompanied by guide line questions posed by the instructor. The topics are mostly
historical periods and some major mutually related events and developments therein around
the world. To facilitate "getting the point," the presentation and consideration
of the periods begin with the more familiar present and recent past, and go in mainly
REVERSE chronological order through the ever more distant past, although chronological
order will be followed in examining shorter periods within each longer one. Some
quotations may help illustrate what I mean:
SOME ILLUSTRATIVE QUOTES
History must from time to time be rewritten, not because new facts may have been
discovered, but because new aspects come into view, because the participant in the
progress of the age is led to standpoints from which the past can be regarded and judged
in a novel way
Up to the present, academic history has not succeeded in liberating itself from the
influence of the spirit of nationality [that] demanded the rewriting of history in terms
of a national existence and a new enthusiasm for the achievements in the past.Academic
historyfinds its characteristic interest in national history. In this the emotional appeal
is strongest, the type of unity is simplest.Nationalistic historiography can never do
justice to the content of the past. If the aim of history be to state "what has
actually happened, there can be no escape from the conclusion that the final test of
traditional historiography must lie in its ability to formulate a synthesis of the history
of mankind [humanity].
Frederick Teggart 
History is marked by alternating movements across the imaginary line that separates
East from West in Eurasia
From this period we find that history has become an organic whole and the general
current of events sets no fixed point So we would by means of our History bring under a
common view, for the benefit of our readers, the operations of which Fortune has employed
for the completion of a system of the world. Indeed it was this above all that incited and
urged us to attempt the writing of history
To confront world history is to confront the ultimate questions of human destiny. . . .
One must look at history, particularly world history, as the reflection of a desired
future. . . . To avoid the challenge of a global perspective is to abdicate in the face of
the historian's central task--to decipher the meaning of history. To reject world history
in a time of crisis is to renege on the historian's ultimate responsibility of confronting
society with its past in a meaningful and useful way. . . . World history has become a
pursuit of world unity.
Paul Costello 
Each student is expected also to write a term paper, although with the instructor=s
prior approval two or more students may collaborate on a longer paper, eg. one that
relates and/or compares one place or theme with another during the same period. The topics
are to be chosen and an outline of ==how I mean to tackle it== are to be presented in
[short] writing early in the term, and the completed paper by the last day of classes.
Evaluation and grades will be based on the paper and class participation, including the
leading of discussions as per above. A mid-term take home exam may be taken if students
and the instructor so desire [so far the latter does not], in which case that exam will
also count in the final grade. Each paper is to examine a particular chosen PROBLEMatique
in time, place, or of a process, such as those listed below, from/with one or more
"orthodox" approaches and/or those that study the same "vertically"
through time; and then RE-EXAMINE THE SAME topic from a GLOBAL WORLD historical and if
appropriate and possible a "horizontally integrative" perspective AND discuss if
and how such hopefully different procedures lead to [partly?] different conclusions. That
may be the case not only because the global/world perspective may lead to the examination
of more or other relevant factors and evidence, but also because examining the chosen
problematique within and from a GLOBAL world historical context may lead to [sometimes
very] different conclusions than those derived from a narrower examination. For instance,
even an already relatively "broad" questions such as 'why the industrial
revolution and the rise of the West?'' will elicit very different answers if placed in a
global world historical context than they do in the 'conventional study.'' Students of
history should have no trouble in finding such "orthodox" approaches to narrower
topics. However, "handling" your topic by placing - or better finding - it in a
world historical context is also acceptable if you really do it. By way of assistance, an
introductory guide to sources, surveys, examples, recommendations of many approaches,
especially to world history, follows:
On mostly last millennium and/ or early/modern world history
- The NEW WORLD HISTORY [NWH] - text book edited by R. Dunn
- TEACHER=S GUIDE - AP WORLD HISTORY, edited by Joan Arno for the College Board Advanced
Placement Program [especially pp 19-40 & representative syllabi]
- SHAPES OF WORLD HISTORY IN TWENTIETH CENTURY SCHOLARSHIP by J.Bentley/AHA
- TEACHING WORLD HISTORY: A RESOURCE BOOK edited by Heidi Roupp
- JOURNAL OF WORLD HISTORY [JWH] various issues
- EIGHT EUROCENTRIC HISTORIANS and THE COLONIZERS MODEL BY J.M. Blaut
- THE EAST IN THE WEST by J. Goody,.
- ReORIENT by A.G. Frank Frank [espec chpts 1 & 7].
- WORLD HISTORIANS AND THEIR GOALS, Paul Castello chpt 9 AWORLD HISTORY AND ESCHATOLOGY.
THE GOALS OF METAHISTORIANS
- THE STRUCTURES OF HISTORY, by Christopher Lloyd espc chpt 1 EXPLAINING & chpt 2.A
CRITICAL SURVEY OF STRUCTURAL HISTORY==
- ASIA IN WESTERN AND WORLD HISTORY: A GUIDE FOR TEACHING edited by A.T. Embree and C.
Gluck [despite its title, is very Eurocentric, see review by A.G. Frank]
- IDEOLOGY & DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY by Irving Zeitlin, On long-term change
as per its sub-title are presented in
- WORLD SYSTEM HISTORY edited by Bob Denemark;
- CIVILIZATION AND WORLD SYSTEM edited by Steve Sanderson.
- WORLD ECOLOGICAL DEGRDATIOIN by Sing Chew
- RISE AND DEMISE by Christopher Chase-Dunn & Tom Hall
- SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION by Stephen Sanderson
- Bibliography and other sources: Appendix to TEACHER=S GUIDE cited above is handy
- TRADITIONS & ENCOUNTERS:GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON PAST by Bentley, Jerry & H.F.
Some suggested process topics: environmental/ecological/climactic change [both
natural>social and social > natural, population growth/ decline rates,
urbanization/de-urbanization, migration/diasporas/entrepots, exploration/frontier
expansion, settled/nomad, religion and/or philosophy, gender relations, race/class,
nationality/ethnicity, family & society, money, production/trade, economic/commercial
institutions, technology, state, public opinion, literacy, war/revolution/social
Some important problematiques, modes of analysis, or theories are historical
periodization, continuity/discontinuity, > art/whole/holism, economic/social/cultural
cycles, science & technology/revolution, food consumption, rise/demise of
civilizations and/or societies, feudalism/capitalism/socialism, hegemony, progress,
Some early modern and recent periods of particular interest are 1490s, 1640s [examined
in ReORIENT, so student/s would have to challenge that and/or bring and examine also
additional evidence for the same places or for other places], 1690s, 1720, 1742, 1760,
1770s; in 19th-20th centuries: 1780s, 1848-57, 1873, 1880s, 1890s-1913, 1907, and other
dates since then. In ancient, classical, and medieval periods, for instance 1750-1500 BC,
1200-1000 BC, 1000-800 BC, 600-450 BC, 200 BC-AD 200, 200-500, 600-800, 1000-1300,
CLASS SCHEDULE, READINGS, THEMES & QUESTIONS
Titles below are abbreviated,
chpt/s = chapter/s
pp = pages
espc = especially
JWH = Journal of World History
B = Book purchase or library
R = Reading supplied mostly 1 per 2 students
S = Supplied in lesser quantity
W = Web Page of A.G. Frank, or course web page if any.
Tuesdays - Lectures
Thursdays - Discussion of Lecture & Readings
listed below in order of importance and/or availability. Each student need not do all
readings. Some can be selected by one or more students for presentation/discussion on
Thursdays, especially of complementary topics and/or divergent views.
INTRODUCTION TO WORLD HISTORY
1.IS WORLD HISTORY POSSIBLE? IF SO, HOW?
Attention! Pop Quiz AP pp 23-29 Report your results to the class [truthfully! No browny
points given or taken!!]
- Allardyce Gilbert - American Historians & the Coming of World History Courses
- JWH 1,1 & NWH - B / L
- McNeill, William -Rise of West After 25 Years - JWH No.1 in Steve Sandersen,ed.
Civilizations & World Systems-R
- McNeill, William - Foreword in WSH5000 R
- McNeill, William - Erasmus Prize Lecture -R
- Frank - pp 20-21 from Preface to World Accumulation  -R
- Fletcher-Integrative History:Parallels & Interconnections  AP Advanced
Placement WH - S
- Frank & Gills - The 5000 Year World System in
Theory and Practice  - WS5000 & W
- Hodgson, Marshall -Rethinking World History, III- Discipline of World History-espc. Chpt
12 -limits to hist comparisons S
- Kristiansen, Kristian - Europe Before History, Chpt 1 Background to Inquiry & Chpt 3
Theoretical Context pp 36-43,50-62 S
2. SECOND HALF : CRISIS IN THE WEST , DECOLONIZATION & RISE OF EAST ASIA &
THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS.
WHAT CRISIS AND IS IT OVER? PEACE OR WAR? DECOLONIZATION & ReORIENT?
- Clairmont, Frederick - On the United States and Japan Today and Tomorrow- R
- Frank - American Roulette & Retrospect & Prospect of World Economic Crisis - R,
- Brenner - World Economy at the Turn of the Millennium - R
- Patel, Sunandra- East Asia's Explosive Development - R
- Frank - Asian Meltdown or Startup? R, W
- Cumings, Bruce -
- Worsley, Peter - Three Worlds - Decolonization pp 296-305
- Gilpin, Robert - Political Economy of International Relations, pp.328-408 B / L
3. REALLY EXISTING SOCIALISM / CATCH-UP IN THE WORLD ECONOMY
SOCIALIST/COMMUNIST OR OTHERWISE?
WORLD ECONOMIC VS. =INTERNAL= CAUSES?
- Johnson, Mark - Eastern Europe, Russia and Eurasia in the Context of World History -R
- Frank - Transideological Enterprise  , World Economy ...& European Challenge
[1983/88]S & Soviet & East European Socialism: What Went Wrong? 
- Hofbauer, Hannes & Andrea Komlosy - Catching -Up Development in Eastern Europe - R
- Gorbachev, Mikhail - Perestroika Origins,Essence,Urgent Necessity- pp17-23, 32-35 ] - R
- Bergesen, Albert in Chase-Dunn,Christopher, ed. Socialist States in the World System, pp
- UN .Economic Comisn. for Europe- Econ.Survey Europe 2000. No. 2/3 -East Europe, pp
- Strayer, Robert - Soviet Collapse in Comparative Perspective - JWH 12,2,Fall 2001 - S
- Teichova, Alice - Wirtschaftrsgeschichte der Tscechoslovakei 1918 1980 -S
4. 1913 - 1950 - WAR, DEPRESSION, DEMOGRAPHY
A 20TH CENTURY OF EXTREMES? POLICY MAKERS OR FOLLOWERS?
- Boulding - Meaning of the Twentieth Century. The Great Transition Livi-Bacci - A Concise
History of World Population -R
- Hobsbawm - Age of Extremes, pp 1-17
- Szucs, - Three Historical Regions of Europe - S
- Barlas - State Strategies Response to the World Economic Crisis [in Eastern Europe &
Balkans ] -S
- Nossiter - Fat Years and Lean chpts1,4,5- S
5. IMPERIALISM AND COLONIALISM 1870-1913
WAS THE WORLD [ALREADY!] GLOBALIZED? IF SO, HOW?
- Frank - Location, Location, Location OR Frank - 19th century - W (In WordPerfect format)
- Saul - Studies in British Overseas Trade 1870-1914 - R
- Magdoff, Harry - New Imperialism 1875-1914, pp 34-62
- O'Brien - Balance Sheet of European Empires - R
- O'Rourke & Williamson - When did Globalization Begin? - R
- Hobsbawm Age of Capital - Chpts 7 & 8 on winners & loosers
- Amsden, Alice - The Rise of the "Rest" Part I - Sinking Behind 1950-1950
6. GREAT DIVERGENCE IN WORLD ECONOMY, DEMOGRAPHY, INCOME, MIGRATION, ECOLOGY 1760 -
WHAT REVOLUTION? WHAT BREAK WITH THE PAST AND NEW DEPARTURE?
- Wallerstein - Modern World-System III 1730-1840s, Chpt 1, pp 1-54 Or Shannon, Tomas R. -
An Introduction to the World-System Perspective, 2nd ed. pp 23-44,61-70
- Hobsbawm - Age of Revolution ,chpt 2, The Industrial Revolution
- Matossian, Mary Kilbourne - Shaping World History chpt. 9, Population Explosion
- Livi-Bacci - Concise History of World Population - pp 100-145, 146-160, 197-212.
- Frank- ReOrient - pp 297-314
- Kenwood and Lougheed - The Growth of the International Economy 1820-2000 [1983&1999]
- Maddison - Monitoring World Economy/ Economic Growth 1820-1992/ Comparative GDP Levels
- Bairoch, Paul Was there a Large Income Differential Before Modern Development - S or R
- Gungwu, Wang, ed. Global History and Migrations, esp Chpts 1 -5
- Chew - World Ecological Degradation chpt 8, or summary article
- Teich, Mikulas BOHEMIA IN HISTORY- chpts 2,10,13,14,18
7. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION & RISE OF WEST 1760-1830 - RECEIVED EUROCENTRIC WISDOM AND
A EUROPEAN MIRACLE? IF YES, WHAT WAS IT? IF NO, WHAT WAS IT NOT?
- Pomeranz, Kenneth - The Great Divergence pp 3-17, chpt 1, chpt 2
- Landes - Wealth & Poverty of Nations - See espc. first page of reviews,preface,chpts
- McNeill - Review of Landes -R
- Frank - Review of Landes - W
- Frank - ReOrient chpt 1 - W
- Blaut -Myth of European Miracle - R Or Blaut - Eight Eurocentric Historians chpts 10,1
- Goody - West=s Pro-lem with the East -INR
- Lewis & Wigen - Myth of Continents - INR
- Landes/Frank - Debate C-Span video
8. EARLY MODERN WORLD ECONOMY 1400-1800
EUROPEAN CAPITALIST EXPANSION INTO OR DERIVED FROM WORLD ECONOMY?
- Frank - ReORIENT Chpt 2,3,4,5 -, W
- Pomeranz - Great Divergence, pp 17-27, Part 3,
- Landes - Wealth and Poverty of Nations
- Braudel - Perspective of the World , 386-536, espc. 484-536 -
- Hamashita , Takeshi - [Chinese] Tri-ute Trade System - R
- Maddison, Angus - The World Economy, A Millennial Perspective, esps. Chpts.
9. RISE OF WEST - NEW ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES
HOW TO CONSTRUCT A NON-EUROCENTRIC ALTERNATIVE STUDY?
- Frank - ReOrient chpt 6, 2,4 - -, W
- Pomeranz, Kenneth - Great Divergence - pp 17-27, Part 3, or INR
- Wong, R. -in- China Transformed or INR
- Lewis , Martin & Karen Wigen -Myth of Continents INR
- Burke, Edmund - Contested Paradigms in Early Modern World History
- Stokes- Review Recent Macrohistories, [Diamond,Landes,AGF,Pomeranz,Wong]] AHR
- Perdue, Peter- Review of Lewis & Wigens, Frank, Wong, BCAS 30/4/1998:53-62 - R
- O'Brien, Patrick - Metanarratives in Global Histories of Material Progress , R
- Vries, P.H.H .-Are Coal & Colonies Really Crucial? Pomeranz & Great Divergence,
JWH 12,2:Fall 2001:407-446 also makes comparisons with Landes, Frank & Wong
SECOND MILLENNIUM FIRST HALF
10. CHINESE AGE, COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE AND ECOLOGICAL IMPERIALISM
TRANSITION FROM FEUDALISM IN EUROPE OR WORLDWIDE TRANSFORMATION? OR NEITHER?
WHAT PLACE ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT IN HISTORY?
- Abu-Lughod -Before EuropeaHegemony , chpt 1,pp 3-17, & Chpt.11 AND/OR Chpt 9 in
Frank & Gills, eds, WS5000
- Hodgson, Marshall - Europe & Islam in a Global Context - in Rethinking World History
pp 97-Parts I , II & Conclusion
- Matossian, Mary Kil-ourne - Shaping World History chpt. 5, The Chinese Millennium
- McNeill,W. - Pursuit of Power - R
- McNeill, W. - Rise of West, chpt 10
- Crosby - Columbian Exchange chpt. 5. New World Foods & Old World Demography
- Crosby - Ecological Imperialism chpts 7,8,9,11
- McNeill, W. - Plagues and Peoples ,pp 132 -175
- Chew - World Ecological Degradation chp t 7
- McNeill, John - China=s Environmental History in World Perspective -in Sediments of
Time, Elvin,M &T.Liu,ed
- Diamond - Germs, Guns, Steel chp t xx and/or J.M.Blaut summary-critique in Eight
11. FIRST MILLENNIUM , SECOND HALF 500 -1000
HOW MANY MEDIEVAL WORLDS, MANY or ONE?
- Hodgson, Marshall -Islamic Civilization as Object of Study in Rethinking World History
pp 112-122, 171 - 181 for real also see Hodgson, Marshall- Venture of Islam - Volume 1
- Frank - The Centrality of Central Asia - W (in
- Beckwith, Christopher - Tibetan Empire in Central Asia -Epilogue -pp 173-196- R
- Frank & Gills - WS Cycles and Hegemonial Shift to Europe 100-C to AD 1500 - S, W?
- Randsborg - The First Millennium in Europe & Mediterranean, espc. Chpts.
1,Historical Framework & Archaeology.
- Wisner, Merry et al - Discovering Global Past, chpt 10, Trans-Asian Contacts 900-1450,
espec pp 270-280
- Winks, Andre -
CLASSICAL WORLD 500 BCE to 500 CE
12. CLASSICAL IMPERIAL WORLD 500 BCE - 500 CE
WERE ROME AND CHINA CONNECTED? IF SO WITH WHAT IMPLICATIONS FOR WORLD HISTORY?
- Matossian, Mary Kilbourne - Shaping World History chpt. 4, Rome and China 200 -C-AD 200
- Frank & Gills - on Persia, Greece , Rome & China - in WS5000, pp 159 - 171
- Liu, Xinru- Ancient India & China. Trade and Religious Exchanges AD 1-600, espc.
Intro, Conclus,& Chpt. 1 - S
- Teggart, Frederick - Rome and China, Study of Correlations in Historical Events - S
- Chew - World System Ecology Chpts 4 & 5
13. THE INSTITUTIONALIST- MARKETEERS DEBATE
WHAT / WHO IS RIGHT, IF ANYBODY?
- Polanyi, Karl et al, eds. Trade & Markets in the Early Empires, espec. Chpts. 1
& 13, 18
- Finley, M.I. Ancient Economy, espec. pp 176-207
- Casson, Lionel - Ancient Mariners, chpts 6, 9, 13, 17 S
- Silver, Morris - Economic Structures of Ancient Near East or Economic Structures
of Antiquity, Intro & Conclus.
- Adams, Ro-ert - Anthropological Perspectives on Ancient Trade
- Frank & Gills WS5000 Chpt 3 & pp 159-171
- Frank - pp 385-387 in Bronze Age World System Cycles and others cited therein
BRONZE AND IRON AGES
14. IRON & AXIAL AGE 1000 BCE - 500 BCE WORLD HISTORICAL CONNECTIONS AND/OR ONLY
- Frank & Gills - World System Cycles, Crises and Hegemonial Shifts 1700 BC - 1700 AD
- Wilkinson-Civilizations,World Systems and Hegemonies- WSH chpt.3 OR Civilizations ARE
World Systems! Chp t 10 In Steve Sanderson, ed Civilization & World Systems OR
Civilizations, Cores, World Economies, and Oikumenes chpt t. 7 in WS5000
- Jaspers, Karl - Axial Age &/or Teggart ...
- Sherratt, Andrew
15. BRONZE AGE SYSTEM, 4000 BCE -1000 BCE
DISTINCT CIVILIZATIONS OR WHAT BRONZE AGE WORLD ECONOMY / SYSTEM?
LONG UP AND DOWN CYCLES? IF SO WITH WHAT CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES?
IMPLICATIONS FOR STUDY / COMPARISON OF =WORLD CIVILIZATIONS=
- Kohl, Phil & Lamberg-Karlovsky,C.C. chR ts 14 & 15 on World Systems Theory &
West/Central Asia in Lamberg-Karlovsky, ed. Archeological Thought in America
- Diakonoff, I.M. Early Antiquity, espec. Foreword [by Phil Kohl] & Chpt 1 General
- Chernykh, & E.M. - Early Metal Ages, espc Intro [by Phil Kohl] & chpt 9 Solved
& Unsolved Problems
- Gills, Barry & Frank - Cumulation of Accumulation - chp t. 4 in WSH 5000
- Frank - Bronze Age World System Cycles - W (in WordPerfect
- Thompson. W. - Trade Pulsations, Collapse, and Reorientation in the Ancient World - R
- Chew ,S.- World Ecological Degradation chpts 2 & 3
16. WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED? FURTHER QUESTIONS, TERM PAPERS [and room for contingencies]